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Реферат: The cities of USA

Название: The cities of USA
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: реферат Добавлен 19:43:01 17 мая 2003 Похожие работы
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.

Plan:

Introduction. America. Where to live?

Capital of the World. New York.

Alaska. Anchorage. The Russian soul.

LA. City of Angels.

Chicago. The faces of its people.

Boston. City or University?

Miami. Wellcome to Paradise!

Salt Lake City. Home of Olimpic magie.

1. Introduction. America. Where to live?

The USA is a very huge country. By its territory it stands on the third place after Russia and Canada. But of course the territory is nothing without the people leaving there and the cities that they build. Imagine you want to go to live in the United states because of some of your reasons, and imagine also you have no relatives and no friends there. But you have the freedom and enough money to leave in any place and in any city in America. What you choose? Little city somwhere on the seashore where you can see how the sun set, or the big meropolitan conglomerat from which you can reach any country in the world? All the cities have their advantages and disadvantages. Let’s we examine some of them!

2. Capital of the World. New York.

The first city which we are going to view as a possible place of living is… New York of course. There is a proverb that Pares is the capital of Europe and New York is the capital of the world. Of course after well-known events of 11 of September New York lost a lot of its power but anyway it remains one of the biggest cities of America. At first a little glance to the history…

Its supoorters hailed the creation of Greater New York as an event of historic significance on a par with the founding of Rome. Yet in the early light of Jan. 1, 1898, things didn't appear too different from before. No one among the five boroughs' 3.5 million residents proposed starting a new calendar, as the Romans had, ab urbe condita, "from the founding of the city."

In the sprawling slums of New York, the so-called other half lived as it always had, mostly hand to mouth. The tenement districts, concentrated near the Manhattan and Brooklyn shorelines, were home to notoriously squalid and overcrowded conditions, a source of misery to those who endured them and a concern to those who studied them.

Activists like Lillian Wald tried to relieve the physical suffering of the immigrant poor and help them find means of escape. Others were increasingly alarmed by the increasing presence of foreigners. In 1902, almost 500,000 immigrants landed at Ellis Island. By the end of the decade, the annual total reached a million. A quarter of them stayed in New York.

In 1908, Police Commissioner Theodore Bingham published an article in The North American Review in which he contended that at least half the city's criminals were Jews. The face of Italian immigrants, wrote Charles Bancroft, a doctor who worked on Ellis Island, displayed "a lack of intelligence." A powerful clique of eugenicists began to argue that the new immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe were genetically prone to crime, disease and depravity and should be kept out.

The attention of those who worried about the future of Greater New York wasn't limited to the behavior of the most newly arrived.

In 1899, Mark Twain wrote that if the United States were really interested in overthrowing corrupt and oppressive tyranny, it should send the Marines to occupy Tammany Hall instead of to fight insurrectionists in the Philippines.

Presiding over the new metropolis was Mayor Robert Van Wyck, handpicked for the job by the Tammany Hall boss Richard Croker. In 1899, the Mazet Investigation, pursuing yet another exposé of municipal corruption, put Croker on the stand. Asked if he was working for his own pocket, Croker retorted, "All the time, same as you."

An immigrant himself, part of the wave of Irish inundating the city in the 1840's and 50's, Croker was at once crass, cynical and sophisticated. He helped assert the newcomers' presence in the one area in which their numbers mattered: politics.

Yet when his candidate for mayor was defeated in 1901, even Croker seemed to recognize that his New York - the wide-open town of sports and pleasure hounds -- was done for. In spring 1902, he took his spoils and sailed into exile.

The leadership of Tammany Hall passed to Charles Francis Murphy. The new boss understood that his increasingly Jewish and Italian constituents wanted more than crumbs of political patronage or the occasional satisfaction of sticking a thumb in the eye of the patrician elite. Along with his protégés, Al Smith and Robert Wagner, Murphy put Tammany Hall in pursuit of winning elections by supporting significant social and economic reform.

The cleanup of New York had been gathering momentum for a generation. Backed by an alliance of clergy, industrialists and moral crusaders, the attack on corruption, rowdiness and overt sexual misconduct intersected with the rising tide of progressivism. Oscar Wilde had once admonished a New York audience that "in the race between vice and virtue, the wise money will be on vice, no matter what handicaps are laid upon it." But it was virtue, at and immediate sign that a new day had arrived was the astounding physical transformation that soon followed the consolidation. By the time Croker left New York in 1902, the long-awaited subway was halfway completed. The newly finished Flatiron Building punctuated the city's emerging verticality. A second East River crossing, the Manhattan Bridge, was under way. A third was planned.

In November 1902, Harper's Weekly judged that it was "as if some mighty force were astir beneath the ground, hour by hour pushing up structures that a dozen years ago would have been inconceivable." By mid-century, Harper's predicted, New York would be a world capital "unrivaled in magnitude, splendor and power." A month later, the City Council took a giant step in that direction when it granted the Pennsylvania Railroad the right to carry out a construction program to join its western and Long Island lines in a Manhattan terminal.

It was one of the largest nongovernment projects ever undertaken, and the master plan called for tunnels beneath the Hudson and East Rivers, electrified tracks, signals and switches, a power plant in Long Island City, sprawling train yards in Sunnyside and the world's largest railroad-arch bridge, over Hell Gate. The capstone was the colossal new train station to be built in midtown.

In charge of the station's construction was Charles Follen McKim, of McKim, Mead & White, then the country's most prestigious architecture firm; McKim's Beaux-Arts design was predicated on the conviction that form didn't follow function, but magnified and ennobled it. McKim intended that Pennsylvania Station would never be mistaken for a mere terminal or a transfer point. The towering travertine columns, glass roofs and soaring interiors told all who entered that they had arrived in a metropolis as self-assured and powerful as any on earth.

Ground was broken in 1904. In the six years it took to complete Penn Station, the city continued to molt its skin. A magnificent library rose on the site of the old Croton Reservoir on 42d Street. The ramshackle Grand Central Terminal was torn down and a stunning replacement soon graced midtown. The Singer Building pushed the skyline to new heights. The seedy stables and saloons around Longacre Square gave way to a new theater district, and the area itself, at the behest of the newspaper that built its headquarters there in 1904, was renamed Times Square.

The first decade of Greater New York had its share of turmoil and tragedy. Racial disturbances broke out in the Tenderloin district in 1900. The 1904 fire aboard the steamship General Slocum killed more than a thousand people. A financial panic hit Wall Street in 1907.

Yet the poised expanse of Pennsylvania Station, with its blend of Roman splendor and American industrial might, testified to the city's underlying confidence and optimism. Like the mighty Ozymandias of Shelley's poem, it embodied the exuberant delusion that there are human achievements so grandly conceived and imposingly constructed that they are immune to time and the wrecking ball.

3. Alaska. Anchorage. The Russian soul.

At all all the history of America is the history of immigrants. They had brought their own culture and rules to the territories where they inhabite. It is very interesting to see America like a mosaic of diffrent cultures, and without the every part of that mosaic it canùt be the full picture. But for us, for Russian people the post interesting part of America is of course Alaska. There we feel the precence of Russian spirit.

On March 30, 1867, the United States purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million, about two cents an acre; "Seward's Folly" many called it, after Secretary of State William H. Seward. On January 3, 1959, Alaska, with a land mass larger than Texas, California and Montana combined, became the 49th state in the union. It is a large state, 1/5 the size of all the other states together, reaching so far to the west that the International Date Line had to be bent to keep the state all in the same day. It's also the only U.S. state extending into the Eastern Hemisphere. In Alaska, the "family car" has wings, vegetables and fruit grow to two times their normal size and moose interrupt golf games when they feel like it.

The name "Alaska" was used by the Russians to refer only to the peninsula. This name was used by the United States to refer first to the entire Territory and then to the State after its purchase in 1867.

The name "Alaska" is taken from the Aleut word "aláxsxaq" that refers to an object to which the sea is directed, in this case the mainland.

The biggest city of Alaska is Anchorage. Anchorage has a maritime climate modified by its 61 degree north latitude and by continental influences. Summers are cool and winters are cold. However, Anchorage does not experience the seasonal temperature extremes of interior Alaska or the north-central U.S. Total precipitation for Anchorage is only 15.91 inches per year, with the greatest amount being recorded in late summer and fall. Total snowfall averages 69.3 inches, but is mostly light and dry, i.e. low in water content. Reflecting its northerly latitude, Anchorage experiences dramatic seasonal swings in the amount of daylight, ranging from a low of about 5.5 hours per day in mid-December to a high of over 19 hours in mid-June.

Suggesting our intention to find a place to live somwhere in America, Anchorage is maybe not the best place to live, but of cource it merit our attention. Only th eproblem with a cold climate. Let’ s we petter take a look of the Western coast of USA. There the climate is better and the people is more friendly. There where the Hoolywood is situated and where th edreams come true. We go to Los Angeles!

4. LA. City of Angels.

The mayor of LAis a very ambitious person. He take care about every point of social life of his city. Here is, for example, the extract from his program «Dine LA»: “I want to encourage everyone to dine out every Tuesday and Thursday so that Los Angeles residents can get back to their normal daily lives and keep our economy on track,” said Mayor Hahn, who dined at Fabiolus Café, one of the participating restaurants. “You will not only get a great meal, but you’ll be helping local businesses.” Really very good place to live if even the mayor is so concerned about what his people eat.

Also what can be one of convinience to live in Los Angeles is that it is a big port. The harbor was an active shipping center in 1897 when a federal panel selected San Pedro Bay over other coastal communities as the site for development of a major port. Construction of the breakwater began in 1899. In 1906, the City of Los Angeles annexed a 16-mile strip of unincorporated land from its southern border to a waterfront tract in San Pedro Bay, which was christened Harbor City.

On December 9, 1907, the Los Angeles City Council created the Los Angeles Board of Harbor Commissioners, marking the official founding of the Port of Los Angeles.

In the early part of this century, the Port bustled with longshore gangs unloading millions of board feet of lumber for local construction projects. Thousands of commercial fishermen and workers in a dozen canneries were involved in catching and processing tuna. More than 20,000 ship builders were working in four yards on various cargo and tanker vessels. Busy and colorful commercial areas sprang up adjacent to the Port to accommodate these workers as well as the ship crews that would be in port of up to 10 days at a time.

The Port today may seem almost serene by comparison, yet it is part of the largest container complex in the United States, handling 3000 vessel arrivals a year, some of which transport as many as 5,000 cargo containers each voyage. A gateway for international commerce and an economic engine for the region, the Port supports one out of every 24 jobs in Southern California.

In 1997 APL Limited's Global Gateway South opens. Considered to be one of the world's largest and most technologically advanced ocean and rail container terminals. The Los Angeles Export Facility opens, serving as a West Coast gateway for exporting high-grade steam coal and petroleum coke from the western United States to industrialized countries in Asia. Terminal Island Container Transfer Facility completed, responding to the needs of Evergreen and NYK Line for on-dock intermodal capability. This 47-acre facility allows for the direct transfer of containers to and from ships and railcars.

In 1999 World's largest shipping line, Maersk Sealand, commits to be the Port's exclusive customer at Pier 400. New partnership estimated to bring the Port $2 billion over a 25-year lease.

In 2000 the completion of Pier 400 Dredging and Landfill Programat last happened, the largest such project in America, a significant milestone in positioning the Port to accommodate the tremendous growth in international trade well into the 21st century.

And now let us take the Angel walk, how the native citizens call the look of their city.

Los Angeles - the City of Angels - is a city built on dreams. The dream of the immigrant seeking a new beginning, the dream of Hollywood with its promise of a life of glamour and riches, the dream of wide open spaces and sunny golden days. In the Bunker Hill/Historic Core Angels Walk you will experience these dreams in the L.A. that exists today, in an L.A. that thrived almost a century ago and in an L.A. that existed only in imagination. You'll see a Victorian's view of what a futuristic building would look like in the year 2000 and its splendors will take your breath away. Shop for pigs' snouts and exotic medicinal roots in a bustling indoor-market. Hear water fountains crash like ocean waves in a dramatic water garden that covers more than an acre. See a headless businessman take out his frustrations on an office building and see a library topped by a golden pyramid. Journey through the pages of Raymond Chandler and through the scripts of Blade Runner, Speed, Who Framed Roger Rabbit and Chinatown. Ride into history on the shortest railway in the world. All this and more is here in Downtown Los Angeles within a square mile (or two). And you can see them all just by taking a short journey. There we can find also Victor Clothing Company a 100-foot tall mural depicting Anthony Quinn in his Oscar winning role as Zorba the Greek by mural artist Eloy Torrez, adorns the Victor Clothing Company, a prominent establishment specializing in wedding outfits. The star-struck owner felt that the accomplished actor, though portraying a Greek, exuded his Latin presence. The Broadway of course, which offers a colorful variety of shops and eateries in an open bazaar-like atmosphere. Music wafts out of many of the stores on this highly successful and important retail thoroughfare creating a very lively street scene. And as a simbol of LA The Million Dollar Theater. The Million Dollar Theater is one of America's first motion picture palaces. It was built with a flourish by showman Sid Grauman in 1918 at a cost of $1 million. The theater was designed by William L. Woolett, and its flamboyant facade is in the architectural style known as Churrigueresque. Mary Pickford and Charlie Chaplin were among those who attended the opening night, February 1, 1918. The 2,200-seat auditorium resembles a Spanish Colonial cathedral. The floors above the theater once housed the offices of The Metropolitan Water District. William Mulholland was the visionary chief engineer and was responsible for (some might say guilty of) creating the water supply that fueled L. A.'s spectacular growth in the 20's, 30's and 40's. The movie Chinatown dramatized this story providing even more mystery and intrigue. The offices were later converted into apartments, where it is said some of Hollywood's most notable faces had residences.

Everybody in LA obligatory tell you the story of famous LA aqueduct. This is the story of how the dream of a few far-sighted people at the turn of the 20th Century became a reality. Follow the links below for details on how the Los Angeles Aqueduct was conceived and built.

Over the years, construction crews set numerous records for miles of tunnel cut and length of pipe installed. The Los Angeles Board of Public Works estimated that crews could dig eight feet of tunnel per day at each tunnel end, for a total of 16 feet per day. Crews dug more than 22 feet per day while constructing the five-mile Elizabeth Tunnel. They finished the tunnel 20 months earlier than the Board's estimate of five years. After World War II, the City began the Mono Basin Project as a way of providing a larger and more dependable flow in the Los Angeles Aqueduct. Four of Mono Lake's seven tributary streams, Lee Vining, Parker, Walker and Rush Creeks, were tapped for export to Los Angeles through an 11-mile tunnel. Crowley Lake and Grant Lake were also built as part of the Mono Basin Project. The completion of the Second Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1970 and the City's plans to augment the Aqueduct flow with Owens Valley groundwater prompted renewed local protests. Inyo County filed suit against Los Angeles under the new California Environmental Quality Act, seeking an Environmental Impact Report on new aqueduct. In 1984, after years of disagreements and court hearings, Inyo County and Los Angeles entered into an Agreement to produce a EIR together. Mulholland, who was thy mayor of LA in 80-th, truly had a vision when he looked to the Eastern Sierra and envisioned an aqueduct to bring water to a growing city. Los Angeles has become the nation's second largest city because of his decision to find another reliable water supply.

OK, now we now a lot of facts about this marvelous city and will keep it in mind untill the moment we have to make final desision where to live. But to have a choice we should see some other cities. How it will looks like if we go to… Chicago! Probably we find there the traces of romantic and bloody history of Al Capone?

5. Chicago. The faces of its people.

At all what we know about Al Capone? He is America's best known gangster and the single greatest symbol of the collapse of law and order in the United States during the 1920s Prohibition era. Capone had a leading role in the illegal activities that lent Chicago its reputation as a lawless city. Capone arrived in Chicago in 1919 and moved his family into a house at 7244 South Prairie Avenue. Capone controlled speakeasies, bookie joints, gambling houses, brothels, horse and race tracks, nightclubs, distilleries and breweries at a reported income of $100,000,000 a year. He even acquired a sizable interest in the largest cleaning and dyeing plant chain in Chicago.

We see now that Chicago is more known not of his museams, art galeries or shops, but by the people and events. The most known of the is the Chicago fire.

The summer of 1871 was very dry, leaving the ground parched and the wooden city vulnerable. On Sunday evening, October 8, 1871, just after nine o'clock, a fire broke out in the barn behind the home of Patrick and Catherine O'Leary at 13 DeKoven Street. How the fire started is still unknown today, but an O’Leary cow often gets the credit. The firefighters, exhausted from fighting a large fire the day before, were first sent to the wrong neighborhood. When they finally arrived at the O'Leary's, they found the fire raging out of control. The blaze quickly spread east and north. Wooden houses, commercial and industrial buildings, and private mansions were all consumed in the blaze. After two days, rain began to fall. On the morning of October 10, 1871, the fire died out, leaving complete devastation in the herat of the city. At least 300 people were dead, 100,000 people were homeless, and $200 million worth of property was destroyed. The entire central business district of Chicago was leveled. The fire was one of the most spectacular events of the nineteenth century, and it is recognized as a major milestone in the city's history.

The great link with the Chicago-city has the name Pullman. In Chicago, the name Pullman has many different meanings: a neighborhood, a railroad car, an industrialist. The story of Pullman starts with one man's idea for a luxury railroad car, which eventually led to his dream of a utopian worker community. That dream resulted in one of Chicago's greatest 19th century labor disputes-and the end of Pullman's utopia. George Mortimer Pullman was born in western New York in 1831, where he worked as a county store clerk and a cabinetmaker. When he moved to Chicago in 1859, he coordinated teams of laborers who raised and moved buildings, a service desperately needed by a city built largely on swampland. Despite this successful career, Pullman had a strong interest in revolutionizing the railway sleeping car. He had once traveled overnight from Buffalo to Westfield in New York and his accommodations were so uncomfortable that he spent the entire evening devising a new railcar design. The Pioneer, Pullman's first attempt at a luxury car, initially failed because it was too wide for railway platforms and bridges and the railroads refused to accommodate it. But after the Pullman car was included as part of President Lincoln's funeral train in May 1865, both Pullman and his car received national publicity and soon became famous for luxury train travel. In 1867, at the age of 36, Pullman established the Chicago-based Pullman Palace Car Company. The luxuries of a Pullman Palace Car included freshly prepared gourmet meals, dining cars, chandeliers, electric lighting, table lamps with silk shades, leather seating, and advanced heating and air conditioning systems. As the railway network and cross-country travel increased, the desire of passengers to travel in one of these luxury cars grew too, just as Pullman had predicted.

In 1880, after purchasing 4,000 acres of land near Lake Calumet, Pullman began building his model company town named for himself in Hyde Park (then a suburb south of Chicago). He hired architect Solon Beman and landscape designer Nathan Barrett to develop a place where "all that would promote the health, comfort, and convenience of a large working population would be conserved, and . . . many of the evils to which they [laborers] are ordinarily exposed [are] made impossible." Pullman differed from other communities in that it was privately owned, a distinguishing feature with both positive and negative aspects. From the outside, the town of Pullman was a wonder. All buildings were made of brick; the nicest homes, which accommodated managers, resembled English row houses. Pullman's large Arcade building--which featured a restaurant, a bank, a library, a post office, a theater, and numerous shops--foreshadowed the modern shopping center. Unlike the city's working-class neighborhoods, in Pullman the shops were set apart from the residences, which George Pullman felt created a more tranquil environment. Not far from the Arcade sat the Hotel Florence, named after Pullman's daughter, where the town's many visitors stayed while viewing the great model city. In the wake of the 1886 Haymarket Affair and the violent strike of 1877, public sentiment was quick to turn against labor. President Cleveland sent federal troops to Chicago on July 4 to protect the Pullman factory. Although Debs advocated that the strikers refrain from violence, various riots occurred between July 5 and 7. Although it is unclear who initiated these riots, these events resulted in hundreds of burned (non-Pullman) railroad cars, several wounded soldiers and civilians, and six dead rioters. By July 10, federal troops broke the railroad blockade and trains began moving. Shortly thereafter, Debs was arrested for contempt and sentenced to six months in jail. The strike officially ended on July 12, 1894. Although the strike collapsed, George Pullman's model for handling the "labor problem" had failed. Pullman had prided himself on his paternalistic approach with his workers, and he could not see how his heavy-handed methods had resulted in this worker rebellion. Criticized and scorned, Pullman died a bitter man in 1897. To prevent his body from being stolen or desecrated by angry employees, Pullman had made special provisions for his burial in Chicago's Graceland Cemetery. His casket consists of a lead-lined box covered in one inch of asphalt, and rests in an eight-foot-deep concrete-filled pit. Eight steel rails rest above the casket and a final layer of concrete was poured on top. At the request of Pullman's wife, Pullman architect Solon Beman designed the gravestone.

Can be that Chicago is wonderful city, but too many dreams collapsed here, too much work was done and too many results. Maybe this is the lack of education? For that we need a help of a strong educational city with a famous university. And here it is! We are moving to Boston!

6. Boston. City or University?

Boston University - independent, coeducational, and non-sectarian -- is an internationally recognized institution of higher education and research located along the banks of the Charles River and adjacent to the historic Back Bay district of Boston.

With more than 30,000 students from all 50 states and 135 countries, it is one of the largest independent universities in the United States. For over 150 years, Boston University has anticipated the changing needs of its students while serving the greater needs of society.

As one of the nation's premier research universities, Boston University believes that all students benefit by learning from dedicated teachers who are actively engaged in original research. The University's learning environment is further enriched by an extraordinary array of direct involvements with the broader artistic, economic, social, intellectual, and educational life of the community. These relationships provide a distinctly practical edge the University's educational and research programs, while enhancing the life and vitality of one of the world's great cities.

Boston University's policies provide for equal opportunity and affirmative action in employment and admission to all programs of the University.

But not only Boston University exist in Boston. There is also famous Northwestern University. Northeastern University is a private, research university (Carnegie Classification Research II), offering a comprehensive range of undergraduate and graduate programs leading to degrees through the doctorate.

A world leader in practice-oriented education, Northeastern emphasizes educational programs that link classroom learning with workplace experience and integrate professional preparation with study in the liberal arts and sciences. Northeastern's main campus is situated on 67 acres in Boston's cultural district, the Avenue of the Arts, between the Museum of Fine Arts and Symphony Hall. It consists of 41 academic and administrative buildings and 27 dormitory and residential buildings.

And of course Harward! The dream University. The graduators of Harvard never agree to accept the jog if the salary be less than 100 000 dollars per year. Really here the dreams comes true!

Harvard College was named for its first benefactor, John Harvard of Charlestown, a young minister who, upon his death in 1638, left half his estate to a new institution established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

The expression "every tub on its own bottom" is often used to describe the decentralized organization and financial arrangement of the 9 faculties overseeing Harvard's 12 schools and colleges. Each faculty is headed by a Dean, who is appointed by the President, and each is directly responsible for its own finances and organization. In addition to the nine faculties, Harvard is also home to the new Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, a major research and educational center where men and women pursue advanced work in all fields and disciplines. The University Administration supports the activities of the faculties and other operations on a University-wide basis.

The faculties are:

1) Faculty of Arts and Sciences includes:

Harvard College

Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

Division of Continuing Education

2) Faculty of Medicine includes:

Medical School

School of Dental Medicine

3) Graduate School of Business Administration

4) Graduate School of Design

5) Divinity School

6) Graduate School of Education

7) John F. Kennedy School of Government

8) Law School

9) School of Public Health

The Harvard Medical School moved to Boston from Cambridge around 1810, finding its permanent home on Longwood Avenue in 1906. It was later joined by the School of Dental Medicine and the School of Public Health.

Located nearby in the Harvard Medical Area are the Countway Library of Medicine and several Harvard-affiliated teaching hospitals - Children's, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brigham and Women's, the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, the Joslin Diabetes Center, and the Massachusetts Mental Health Center.

These independent institutions provide teaching and advanced training to students enrolled in the Schools and are, at the same time, outstanding health-care facilities for the community and world-renowned centers of medical research. Other Harvard-affiliated teaching hospitals include Massachusetts General Hospital, the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Cambridge Hospital, McLean Hospital, and Mount Auburn Hospital.

The Harvard Business School was established in 1908. Its campus buildings, constructed in 1927, are situated on the Boston side of the Charles River in Allston. Also just across the river from Cambridge is the 92-acre Soldiers Field Athletic Area, where most of the University's playing fields and athletic facilities are located.

Harvard values its positive relationship with Boston and in 1999 agreed to increase its voluntary payments in lieu of taxes to the city by 45 percent over the next 20 years. Through the 20/20/2000 Initiative, announced in November 1999, Harvard will provide $20 million in low-interest loans to area nonprofit agencies. The money will be used to create or preserve housing for Massachusetts residents. The University is also cooperating with Boston to preserve affordable housing, adopting plans for new Business School dormitories so fewer students will occupy valuable off-campus housing, and has transferred ownership of its Mission Hill housing development to its tenants' association.

After George Washington's Continental Army forced the British to leave Boston in March 1776, the Harvard Corporation and Overseers voted on April 3, 1776, to confer an honorary degree upon the general, who accepted it that very day (probably at his Cambridge headquarters in Craigie House). Washington next visited Harvard in 1789, as the first U.S. president. Since then, a few other men who were, or were to become U.S. presidents, have received honorary degrees:

John Adams, 1781

Thomas Jefferson, 1787

James Monroe, 1817 John Quincy Adams, 1822

Andrew Jackson, 1833

Ulysses S. Grant, 1872

William Howard Taft, 1905

Woodrow Wilson, 1907

Herbert C. Hoover, 1917

Theodore Roosevelt, 1919

Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1929

Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1946

John F. Kennedy, 1956

Very impressing, very! And now after all that educational and historic tours we need a little relaxation. For some people life is always relaxation: beaches, sun, sea and blue sky. Wellcome to Miami!

7. Miami. Wellcome to Paradise !

Miami has it all. A great climate which makes it a great vacation spot all year round, exciting attractions, professional sports teams, art, history, museums, and all of the nature parks and education you could ask for. The tropical climate provides attractions that are found on only a few places. Ocean life, alligators, snakes, and tropical vegetation are found in many exhibits and museums around Miami.

Miami has many local activities & attractions. Amusement parks, deep-sea fishing, boat rides, sightseeing, fine dining, professional football, dolphin watching, marine museums, and that is not all. You can spend hours, days, or weeks entertaining yourselves and your family without having to travel more than a few minutes in any direction. Nighttime entertainment includes: music and dance clubs with music ranging from smooth sounding jazz to lively disco, comedy clubs, concerts, theater, opera, symphony and movies. Even with all that to do, virtually no one comes to Miami without taking a stroll along the beach. Come, have fun, and enjoy.

Whether you're on budget or not, you should be able to find affordable accommodations in Miami anytime of the year.

While visiting Miami you'll never go hungry for quality food or shopping. Miami offers lots of great restaurants that will please anyone's appetite. You can eat everything from seafood to sushi and do it with a fantastic ocean view. Restaurants serving Italian, French, American, and Seafood can all be found close by. If shopping is what you are looking for you are in luck. Miami has everything from your department store chain to local gift shops. Shopping here is great for everyday items as well as the special gift items you are looking for.

Miami has everything you are looking for. After a day at the beaches or attractions you may want to relax at one of Miami's many cocktail lounges. Do you have more energy? Visit night clubs ranging from hard rock to the blues for a night of dancing and entertainment. Clubs with live music and shows are also on the menu for visitors who want to finish their day watching a great performance. No matter what you are looking for when the sun goes down, Miami has it to offer.

Wonderful life! And at the end of our great trip we could’t forget also to visit Salt Lake City, the capital of 2002 Olimpic games.

8. Salt Lake City. Home of Olimpic magie.

Visible from points all over the city, massive banners depicting athletes in action adorn various buildings in downtown Salt Lake City, home of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games. Some visitors suffer from the effects of the high altitude and experience a period of altitude adjustment. The decreased oxygen in the air at higher altitudes may cause altitude sickness. Symptoms may include headache, dizziness, breathlessness, fatigue, dry cough, loss of appetite, nausea and sleeplessness.

Weather conditions in the Salt Lake area can change quickly. A strong wind can cause the body to lose heat much more quickly, possibly leading to hypothermia. Spectators may avoid these scenarios by properly dressing for events held at the outdoor venues. Salt Lake’s elevation is 4,330 feet above sea level at the valley floor and 5,200 feet in the foothills. Nine major ski resorts, three cross country ski areas and the nation’s only recreational ski jumping complex are less than an hour’s drive from downtown. Seven million people visit the Salt Lake area each year. Salt Lake City is the largest city ever to host winter Olympic games.

Oh, yes, we had really very great tour accross all the America and find a lot of wonderful places where is possible to live. But it was true when one of the wise people said, that your home is where you heart is. Each city has its speciality, beauty and history, in every city is very good to live with all possible comfort. But the question: where is your home? still remains. Soon Salt Lake City becomes the home for millons of people coming to see greatest event in American history.

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Где скачать еще рефератов? Здесь: letsdoit777.blogspot.com
Евгений22:21:38 18 марта 2016
Кто еще хочет зарабатывать от 9000 рублей в день "Чистых Денег"? Узнайте как: business1777.blogspot.com ! Cпециально для студентов!
10:16:19 24 ноября 2015

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