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: The Marxs class

: The Marxs class
:
: 00:01:30 22 2010
: 19 : 2 : 0 : 0 :    

TH MRXS CLSS

(ssy)

dscussn f th pltcl prblms f prltrn rvlutn sm clrfctn n numbr f pnts n Mrxs scl thry. Th fllwng summry cvrs numbr f cntrvrsl qustns by sttng Mrxs vw.

W hv usd prltrt s fr wth th brd mnng f wg rnrs, spclly n rdr t dffrntt t frm th rly hstry f th wrd. t s s ncssry nw t b mr xct, nt s much fr th scntfc ccurcy s n rdr t dspns wth sm cmmn msundrstndngs f th pltcl mprt f prltrn rvlutn. Mrxs tttud twrd prcs dfntn n pltcl trmnlgy ws typcl f hs dy n bng rltvly prmssv s cmprd wth cntmprry stndrds; but h grw mr nclnd t prcsn t lst n th fld f cnmc scnc W sw ths rflctd n hs ncrsd cr t dstngush btwn prltrt nd wrkng clss n t lst n ccsn.

Prt f th prblm ws tht, lthugh prltrn ws lrdy n us s trm brdr thn wrkr ,Mrx cm t ssgn nrrwr scp by trmnlgcl utcm f hs cnmc thry. vr th spn f Mrxs lf, sclst ltrtur ttchd whl spctrum f mnng t th wrd. gd xmpl f th brd nd f th spctrum ws n prgrmmtc sttmnt f th Cmmunst Lgu, prbbly wrttn by Schppr, shrtly bfr th Cmmunst Mnfst : n prsnt-dy scty prltrns r ll ths wh cnnt lv n thr cptl, th wrkr s wll s th mn f lrnng, th rtst s wll s th ptty-burgs Bhnd ths unwrkbly brd usg, s ls th usg by thrs, ws th strng hnrfc clrtn tht ws ntndd t cnvy n ths crcls. ctully th rl sns ws ngtv: ll wh wr nt dlrs. Trmnlgclly t rsd th bnnr f untd frnt by dsprt scl lmnts gnst th rulng mnrty. lthugh th rgns f ths knd f hnrfc ur rund prltrn r pr-Mrxst nd nn-Mrxst,* ts ffcts lngr n n Mrxst ltrtur.

cnmc dfntn

n Mrxs thry, th prltrt s th wrkng clss pculr t cptlst rltns f prductn. t ds nt cmprs ll wh wrk fr lvng, r wh d usful r ncssry wrk. t cnssts f wrkrs whs lvlhd dpnds n wg rltnshp wth mplyrs f lbr pwr, nd wh thrfr prduc surplus vlu n th prcss f cmmdty prductn.

Thus th trm prltrt s nt ctrmnus wth numbr f thr xprssns tht rc ftn usd synnymusly.

Th prltrt ds nt nclud ll wg-wrkrs. Fr xmpl, t ds nt nclud wg-wrkrs mplyd by gvrnmnt - rd-buldng wrkrs, n n xmpl by Mnx - snc strctly spkng thy d nt prduc surplus vlu n th curs f cmmdty prductn.

Th prltrt ds nt cnsst nly f ndustrl, wrkrs (whtvr tht dscrptv trm s tkn t cmprs). Surplus vlu s prducd n th curs f thr typs f cmmdty prductn.

Th prltrt ds nt cnsst nly f mnul wrkrs. Thr s whl sphr f ntllctul r mntl lbr whch s s prltrn s ny thr (W wll rturn t ths n Chptr 16)

Th prltrt ds nt cnsst nly f wrkrs t th pnt f prductn (gn, hwvr tht phrs s ntrprtd).

Fr xmpl, trnsprttn my cntrbut t th surplus vlu f th trnsprtd cmmdty; nd truck drvr my b s prltrn s n ssmbly-ln hnd

Th prltrt ds nt cnsst nly f wrkrs nggd n prducng tngbl cmmdts Prducrs f srvcs (nnmtrl cmmdts) my ls b prducng surplus vlu. T tk n xmpl whch cmbns ths nd prvus pnt: slrd tchr n prvtly wnd schl tht s run s prft-mkng ntrprs s prducng surplus vlu fr th mplyr.

Sm f th bv pnts rstrct th tchncl cvrg f th trm mr thn s cmmnly rlzd. Thr s fnl pnt t b md whch xpnds t sgnfcntly.

Th bsc unt f th prltrt n cptlst prductn, cnsdrd structurlly, s nt ny ndvdul but th cllctv lbrr. Ths trm f Mrxs rfrs t th nsmbl f wrkrs whs lbr tkn tgthr s ncssry t prduc gvn cmmdty. t my b smll numbr (rrly n!) r vry lrg cllctvty; but, mr mprtnt, t cmmnly unts bth mnul nd ntllctul (mntl) lbr spclts, bth lbr t th pnt f prductn nd wy frm th fctry, bth lbr xpndd drctly n th prduct nd lbr ndrctly ssctd wth th ncssts f prductn (lk flr-swpng). t ls ncluds suprvsry lbr f ny typ ncssry t h prductn f th cmmdty. N n f ths cllctvty s rspnsbl fr th vlu mbdd n th cmmdty; ll f thm r cllctvly. Thr s n bss fr dstngushng btwn prltrn nd nnprltnrn cnsttunts f th cllctv lbrr; ll f thm r mmbrs f th prltrt.

Th burgs-prltrn ntgnsm n whch Mrx bss th mdrn clss struggl s, thn, nt rprsntd by th dchtmy btwn drt-splttrd, hrny-hndd, blu-cllrd tlrs nd cln shrtd, chr-wrmng ppr mnpultrs. Th lttr s burgs cncptn, tht s, t rss frm clss cncptns f scl ntgnsm tht r chrshd by th rulng clss s slf-srvng strtyp r crctur f th rl wrld. Ths rmns tru vn whn t s nvrtd, s, whn th hrny-hndd lwr-clss mg s dlzd by lntd burgs wh wsh t brk wth thr clss.

Wrkng-clss crcls

n prsnt mprtnc f mphszng th nrrw cnmc mnng f prltrt t Mrx s t shk up cmmn msundrstndngs. Thus, t s tru tht, tchnclly, n dtrl suprvsr f th ncyclpd Brtnnc my b prltrn whl Nvy Yrd shpfttr s nt. But mrgnl cnsquncs f ths xtrm srt r nt typcl f th scpltcl rl plyd by prltrn lmnts s gnst nn prltrn strt. Th xmpl clls ttntn t th nd fr th nxt stp: cncrt xmntn f th rltnshp btwn n cnmc strtum s such nd ts scl rl, nd hnc th. tndncy f ts rltnshp t th pltcl clss struggl.

bvusly th ncyclpd dtr, vn f tchnclly prltrn, wll tnd t rct sclly nd pltclly qut dffrntly frm fctry hnd. Mrxs cncptn f rvlutn smply puts frwrd th fllwng prpstn. bjctv clss sttus s th mst mprtnt sngl dtrmnnt f scpltcl rl n th lng run; nd f th vrus clss stutns, tht f th prltrt tnds t drv mst cnsstntly twrd brk wth burgs rltns.

Nt n vn ds t [th prltrt] g thrugh th strn but stlng schl f lbr. t s nt qustn f wht ths r tht prltrn, r vn th whl prltrt, t th mmnt rgrds s ts m. t s qustn f wht th prltrt s, nd wht, n ccrdnc wth ths bng, t wll hstrclly b cmplld t d. ts m nd hstrcl ctn s vsbly nd rrvcbly frshdwd n ts lf stutn s wll s n th whl rgnztn f burgs scty tdy.

Ths ws wrttn bfr th yung Mrx hd gt vry fr wth hs cnmc nvstgtn f th whl rgnztn f burgs scty. But t lrdy rts th rvlutnry rl f th prltrt n ts lf stutn, th bjctv rltns tht cndtn ts scl xstnc. ngls sd n mr whn, much ltr, h dscrbd th prltrt s clss whs cndtns f lf ncssrly drv t t scl rvlutn.

scl nlyss f th rltn btwn clsss nd pltcs wll, hwvr, nt nrmlly shw smpl dul stutn. Th dul pttrn mpls hghly plrzd cnjunctur such s cmmnly ccurs t th nd f dvlpmnt, nt t ts bgnnng. Fr bttr schm, lt us rsrt t th mtphr mpld by th phrs scl crcls. Yu r nvtd t thnk f systm f cncntrc crcls, wth surrundng, wth surrundng rs. Hr th mn bdy f th prltrt s t b sn s cr grup, ccupyng cntrl pstn wth rltn t th rvlutnry drvs wthn scty.


n th ccmpnyng schmtc dgrm, n m s t llustrt th fct tht rvlutn ntls th sttng nt mtn f vr-xpndng crcls f scty. Th strtgc pstn t st ths crcls nt mtn s ccupd by th prltrt: such s Mrxs vw - th prltrns crtd by lrg-scl ndustry ssum ldrshp f ths mvmnt nd crry th whl mss lng wth thm

Th rltns mng clsss, clss strt, nd clss lmnts n rvlutn nvlv, f curs, fr mr thn th br bns f clss dfntn. Th undrlyng dmrctns f clss mrly prvd frmwrk fr thr scl ntrctns. Frm ths stndpnt ur mphss wll b n th mn bdy f th prltrt plus ths sctns f th ppultn whs lf stutns n scty tnd t b smlr. (Ths cnsdrtn wll b cncrtzd n subsqunt chptrs) t s ths cmbntn whch tnds t b clld th wrkng clsss, r vn th wrkng clss, n Mrxs wrtngs - trm, thrfr, whch s bst rgrdd s nt nrrwly tchncl-cnmc but s sclly xtndd pnumbr rund th prltrt. Lt us spcfy nw tht whn Mrx lvs th spcfc grund f cnmc scnc n hs dscussns, nd spclly whn th cntxt s pltcl ffrs, th trms prltrt, wrkrs, r wrkng clss tnd t dnt ths sm cmbntn.

Vngurd nd lls

Whn Mrx wrt n th Cmmunst Mnfst tht th prltrn rvlutn, unlk th burgs, ws th mvmnt f th mmns mjrty," t ws n ntcptv frmul. n lmst ll cuntrs, nsfr s th prltrn rvlutn ws th mvmnt f mjrty, t culd nt b th mvmnt f th prltrt nly but f th prltrt nd ts lls, nmly, ths scl crcls t culd st n mtn. Th clss xclusvly dpndnt n wgs ll ts lf s stll fr frm bng mjrty f th Grmn ppl," wrt ngls n 1871 t s, thrfr, ls cmplld t sk lls. nd h prcdd t wgh th wrth f vrus clss lmnts s lls. W shll d s n Prt .

n 1848-1849 th grvmn f Mrx nd ngls plcs n th rvlutn ws th prblm f lls, s w shll s. Th rvlutnry mvmnt cllpsd vr ths prblm, vr th nchrnc, ncngrunc nd pprnt cntrdctn whch prvld n tht mvmnt s cnsqunc f th crsscrssng pulls f th vrus scl sctrs:

Whn ntrsts s vrd, s cnflctng, s strngly crssng ch thr, r brught nt vlnt cllsn; whn ths cntndng ntrsts n vry dstrct, vry prvnc, r mxd n dffrnt prprtns; whn, bv ll, thr s n grt cntr n th cuntry wht ls s t h xpctd but tht th cntst wll dsslv tslf nt mss f uncnnctd struggls, n whch n nrmus quntty f bld, nrgy, nd cptl s spnt, but whch fr ll tht rmn wthut ny dcsv rsults?

Wht ws lckng n ths fld rvlutn ws prcsly th pttrn f vngurd clss succssfully drwng ll ts lls ftr t.

Ths stndpnt prvds vry mprtnt qulfctn t th brds y vw mbdd n th Cmmunst Mnfsts vvd pctur tht Scty s whl s mr nd mr splttng up nt tw grt hstl cmps, nt tw grt clsss drctly fcng ch thr: burgs nd prltrt. Ths pctur mphszs th lng-trm trnd twrd ncrsng plrztn~ But n shrtr-rng trms, dcsv prblm f ch plr clss s t ttrct nd hld clss lls nd t nutrlz thrs. Th prltrn rvlutn dpnds nt n th prltrt ln, but n th hgmny f th prltrt mng th rvlutnry frcs. n sdd dgmtztn f ths Mnfst phrsm ws turnd by th Lsslln mvmnt nt th wtchwrd tht, rltv t th wrkng clss, ll thr clsss r nly n rctnry mss." Bth Mrx nd ngls rdculd ths pprntly rdcl ssrtn nd dnuncd t s pltclly rctnry. t mnt th dft f rvlutn by xcludng lls. (Ths ssu wll b dscussd t lrg n chptr 11)

Th scl rvlutn wuld nt b md by th prltrt slus, nd, thr ws n nd t wt untl th dvlpmnt f scty hd md th prltrt mjrty by tslf, nr vn t xpct tht such n xtrm pnt mght b rchd. T b sur, th scl rvlutn ws pssbl nly whr th prltrt hd cnc t ccupy t lst n mprtnt pstn mng th mss f ppl," Mrx wrt,but ths ws s bcus nly such prltrt culd hp t hd rvlutnry clss llnc. t ws th prltrn-dmntd llnc whch h xpctd t b th mss bss f th scl trnsfrmtn.

Why th wrkng clss?

Wht s thr n th lf stutn f th wrkng clss tht cuss Mrx t rgrd t s th hstrclly nmntd hrd cr f mdrn rvlutn?

Th nswr hs nthng t d wth dlzng wrkrs s such; t ds nt dpnd n rgrdng wrkrs s smhw bttr, r mr clvr, curgus, r humntrn thn thr ppl. Nr s t rlvnt t prv, s cn b dn wth s, tht wrkrs ftn fllw rctnry curss nd ldrs nd by n mns shw n nvrbl ffnty fr prgrssv cuss. Thy rc t lst s cpbl f bng msld nd dcvd s ny thr sctn f scty (ncludng ntllctuls). Thy r flld wth slfsh sprtns nd unwrthy prjudcs lk vryn ls. f ths wr th srt f thng nvlvd, th cs wuld nt nly b clsd - t culd nvr hv bn pnd.

Tkng wrkrs prsn fr prsn s ndvduls, th qustn f whthr thy r bttr thn thrs bcus thy blng t n nntd clss s qut ln t Mrxs mthd f nqury. n gnrl Mrx ds nt vw scl cnflcts s cntsts btwn Gd Ppl nd Bd Ppl. Th cptlsts pllrd n Cptl fr thr cllus dsrgrd f th suffrng cusd by brutl xplttn wr just s lkly t b knd prnts nd gnrus frnds s th nxt prsn, nd nt gvn t trmplng dwn chldrn n th strt. Ppl ct n wy s ndvdul tms n th scl fbrc; thy ftn ct qut dffrntly s prt f clss cllctvty. Th burgs xplntn s Busnss s busnss - whch mns tht n must mk shrp dstnctn btwn n ndvdul-humn rl nd clss-cnstrnd rl. Th lf stutn f cptlsts ls dtrmns clss rl, wth clss chrctrstcs tht cnnt b dducd smply frm th sum ttl f ndvdul psychlgs.

Lk vry thr clss nd rgnc scl grup, th prltrt s mr thn th sum f ts ndvdul tms. Th wrkng clss s tmzd whn t s unrgnzd. Clss rgnztn brngs clss chrctrstcs t th fr, nd, s functn f rgnztn, clss chrctrstcs ncrsngly tk prcdnc vr mrly ndvdul rctns, th grtr th scl f clss nvlvmnt. Thn, n fdbck ffct, clss rctns cn ls rshp nd rduct ndvdul rctns. Thus, clss-cnscusnss dvlps. Whn Mrx ws n mnd fr Hgln phrslgy, th tmzd clss ws clss n tslf (n sch ) but bcm clss fr tslf (fur sch ) nsfr s t rgnzd nt scl ntty nd chvd cnscusnss f ts scl nd pltcl rl n th curs f struggl. * ,

ll ths, fr Mrx, s hstrcl prcss, nt sttc mystqu. Rvlutnrnss ds nt rsd n th substnc f th prltrt lk snctty n th Hly Ghst; th ntn tht vry prltrn s mmnntly mr rvlutnry thn th unnntd t ny gvn tm r plc hs n mr t d wth Mrx thn muttrng ptrnstr. Th cndtns f xstnc f th wrkng clss prvd th cnnctn btwn th cnmc pstn f th clss nd ts pltcl tndncs; th prltrt s rvlutnry n ccrdnc wth ts whl [scl] pstn

Th hstrcl dvntgs pssssd by th wrkng clss fr th rl f rvlutnry vngurd my b summrzd s fllws:

Th cndtns f lf f th wrkng clss ld t t rgnz, t prduc mr nd mr hmgnus mvmnt.

ts clss prpnsty t rgnz s utstndng. Th mdl nd pnr n ths rspct s th cptlst clss tslf, whs wn clss cnscusnss nd sns f clss sldrty hv ftn bn nsprtns wrkrs. But thn, th cptlsts r th thr urbn clss rgnzd by mdrn ndustry. grrn ppultns r unbl t rvl chvmnts f th urbn clsss, by rsn f thr wn cndtns f xstnc. Th dsprsn f th rurl lbrrs vr lrgr rs brks thr pwr f rsstnc whl cncntrtn ncrss tht f th twn prtvs," bsrvs Mrx n Cptl . . . smlr cntrst btns fr th lndd pssssng clsss.

Wrkrs r tught rgnztn nt by thr suprr ntllgnc r utsd gttrs, but by th cptlsts. Cncntrtd ggrphclly n urbn rs, wrkrs r furthr rgnzd n fctry gngs, ssmbly lns, wrk shfts, lbr tms, nd s n - tht s, by th rgnztn f th dvsn f lbr, t whch cptlsm hs cntrbutd s mghtly. Cptlsm hs n chc but tchng ts wrkrs th wndrs f rgnstn nd lbr sldrty, bcus wthut ths th systm cnnt prt. Cptl ssmbls th burgs nd th prltrns n lrg cts, n whch ndustry cn b crrd n mst prftbly, nd by ths hrdng tgthr f grt msss n n spt mks th prltrns cnscus f thr pwr. t xpunds th nd fr dscpln, nd t th sm tm nvluntrly dmnstrts th dfcts f burucrtc dscpln. t nfrcs cntrlztn f ffrt, nd glrfs th dvntgs f cmbnd lbr nd th subrdntn f ndvdul slf-ntrst t grup nds. t sclzs msss f wrkrs n n plc nd subjcts thm t smultnus rsntmnts. Th wrkng clss cn sy: Th rgnztn yu tch m wll xcut, nd t shll g hrd but wll bttr th nstructn.

t s vdnt tht ths lssns r nt tught qully t ll wrkrs, vn prt frm th usul ndvdul dffrncs. Thr r dffrncs n wrkng clss stutns lf stutns, t. Fr xmpl, th lssns r plnr t ssmbly-ln wrkrs thn t n ffc scrtry wh wrks wth" bss rthr thn wth fllw wrkrs. W wll tuch n thr rsns ltr.

Th ntrsts f wrkrs, s grup rgnzd by cptl, ld thm t struggl.

T ngg n clss struggl t s nt ncssry t blv n th clss struggl ny mr thn t s ncssry t blv n Nwtn n rdr t fll frm n rpln. (n th lttr vntulty, hwvr, t s dvsbl t blv n prchuts) Th wrkng clss mvs twrd clss struggl nsfr s cptlsm fls t stsfy ts cnmc nd scl nds nd sprtns, nt nsfr s t s tld but struggl by Mrxsts. Thr s n vdnc tht wrkrs lk t struggl ny mr thn nyn ls; th vdnc s tht cptlsm cmpls nd ccustms thm t d s.

Nt nly-thr ldrs but wrkrs s whl bgn by prfrrng clss pc nd scl trnqulty, fr xcllnt rsns. But f tht ndd th mttr, t wuld b mpssbl t ccunt fr th fct f clss rgnztn. Th bsc functn f clss rgnztn s struggl, prsnt r ptntl, rlty r thrt. Th vry ntn f n rgnztn, lk trd unn, whch s nhrntly hsptbl t mmbrs f n clss nly, nd whch s nhrntly wknd untl t chvs th rgnztn f th ntr clss s such, s ntn tht fts n burgs dlgy.

Th thrust f th prltrts rgnzd struggl prsstntly tnds t g utsd th frmwrk f burgs nsttutns nd ds.

Th prtv cntrdctn s btwn th rghts f prvt prprty, cptlsms jurdcl dl, nd th rgnzd prltrts nvtbl nsstnc n scl rspnsblty fr ll vtl spcts f lf, ncludng th cnmc. Th nhrnt clm f cptlst prvt-prprty rltns s tht th whl r f cnmc lf, n whch n hs t rn lvng, s wthdrwn frm th hgmny f scty nd hndd vr t th unltrl pwr f cptl s ts brthrght. Th nhrnt clm f n rgnzd prltrt s tht t must hv sy n ths. Ths cntrdctn rflcts Mrxs prpstn tht th bsc cntrdctn f cptlsm s tht btwn scl prductn nd prvt pprprtn.

n th curs f wrkng ut th cntrdctn, cptlsm ccpts mny cmprmss; fr xmpl, t ylds t stt ntrvntn n th nm f scl rspnsblty, nd vn dmnds ntrvntn, spclly fr subsds, strkbrkng, nd s n. But t s n th ntur f th n wrkng-clss lf stutns, t. Fr xmpl, th lssns r plnr rgnzd wrkng clss tht t cn nvr wn nugh f th substtutn f scl rspnsblty fr prvt crprtv cntrl; nd t s n th ntur f cptl tht t lwys sks t subrdnt prtl nd dstrtd frms f scl rspnsblty t th cntnud rlty f cptls clm t scl hgmny. Ths ppstn s bsc n.

Thr s spctrum f scl rspnsblty t. Mr r lss rdclzd wrkrs my rs dmnds fr prc nd prft cntrls rgultn, vn ntnlztn; n ntns clss struggls, st-n strkrs hv tkn vr fctrs wthut qulm but th rghts f prvt prprty. But vn cnsrvtv wrkrs nd thr unns, tkng clss cllbrtn fr grntd, tnd t supprt scl-cntrl prpsls whch d nt mprss thm wth hvng mmdt ntcptlst mplctns: cntrls vr prcs, hlth nsurnc, ffshr l; nd mny thr ctdls f prprty. Cptl s usully mr clss-cnscus thn tht; hnc t dnuncs th nsstnc n scl rspnsblty vrsus prvt-prprty rghts s crpng sclsm. Ths chrg rflcts rlty.

Smul Gmprs usd t rgu tht hs smpl slgn fr th lbr mvmnt - Mr! - ws mr rvlutnry thn th sclst prm. Th nswr nd nt dny th rl rvlutnry mplctns f slgn, whch Gmprs hd n ntntn f crryng thrugh. Mr!" s n mplctly rvlutnry prgrm f n bvus cndtn s ddd: tht lbr cnsstntly nd unrmttngly prss fr t rgrdlss f ll cptlst cnsdrtns, tht s, vn whn mr" s ncmptbl wth cptlst nds nd ntrsts. bvusly, mr" s nt rvlutnry f t s rsd nly whn t ds nt ncmmd cptl. Gmprs dd nt cnfss t ths lmttn, whch ws hs ctul rgultng prncpl. Hs ppl ws clss ppl, t b sur, thrfrnhrntly dscmmdng t cptl; t nd nly b ppld unrmttngly. s lbr prsss fr mr - ncludng mr scl rspnsblty, mr cntrl vr ts cndtns f xstnc - th clss drvs th lgc f ts wn lf stutn utsd th bunds f th cptlst frmwrk nd tnds t crt th cndtns fr xpldng tht frmwrk.

Nn f ths hppns utmtclly; hnc th cmplctns dscussd n mny chptrs. ptntlty s st up. But ths ptntlty ds nt btn qully fr thr clsss nd scl strt. Th wrkng clss s nt th nly clss r grup lntd, t n tm r nthr by th prtns nd dprdtns f cptlsm; th cptlst clss hs dspld mddl-clss strt, bnkruptd ptty-burgs prprty wnrs, mbttrd n ntllgnts, plundrd psntry, nd s n. Rdclzd mvmnts nd prts bsd n ths scl rsntmnts hv nt bn rr. But th pltcl prgrms thy tnd t dpt s thy mv nt ppstn t th sttus qu r lkly t rmn wthn th bunds f th cptlst systm. Hnc thy tnd t cncntrt

Nn f ths hppns utmtclly; hnc th cmplctns dscussd n mny chptrs. ptntlty s st up. But ths ptntlty ds nt btn qully fr thr clsss nd scl strt. Th wrkng clss s nt th nly clss r grup lntd, t n tm r nthr, th prtns nd dprdtns f cptlsm; th cptlst clss hs dspld mddl-clss strt, bnkruptd ptty-burgs prprty wnrs, mbttrd n ntllgnts, plundrd psntry, nd s n. Rdclzd mvmnts nd prts bsd n ths scl rsntmnts hv nt bn rr. But th pltcl prgrms thy tnd t dpt s thy mv nt ppstn t th sttus qu r lkly t rmn wthn th bunds f th cptlst systm. Hnc thy tnd t cncntrt n mr pltcl rfrm, n cnmc nstrums lk mny mnpultn, n dmggc ttcks n th Bnk ctpus r ntrst Slvry r sm thr xcrscnc f th systm; thy d nt tnd t cm ut fr bltn f th cptlst systm. Hstrclly nd n wrldwd scl, th lttr cnclusn s ssctd wth th wrkng clss, whn t mvs lft. Ths s th cntnt f ngls much-cmprssd phrsm: wh sys prltrt, sys sclsm.

Th prltrts cndtns f xstnc nt nly mpl t twrd rgnzd ntburgs struggl, but push t nt prsstnt bldnss nd mltncy whch s wll-ngh unqu t ths clss t crtcl stgs f struggl.

Ths pnts t th lrgly unxplrd trrn f th scl psychlgy f clsss. Fr w r cncrnd wth ths s clss phnmnn nt s ndvdul chrctrstcs. Ths dffrnc s mprtnt.

Fr xmpl: n f th bst-knwn strtyps f tmdty s tht f th Tmd Prfssr - th Hllywd crctur f th pnc-nzd, hrrumphng, musy schlr wh blnds ut f sght mng th lbrry bks. Whn th ndvdul fculty mmbrs f lrg mrc unvrsty r xmnd nwdys, ths strtyp hrdly sms txst, nd myb t nvr dd. n fct, mr nd mr prfssrs r chvng th prsnlts f vcuum-clnr slsmn. Vt th rgnzd pctur s ltgthr dffrnt. Put ths ggrssv prsngs tgthr n th cllctv frm f n cdmc Snt nd th rsult s pk f pusllnmty tht wuld blw th fus n sclgcl cmputr, vn t tms whn ndgntn nd rsntmnt t Trusts r Rgnts r swpng thr stut hrts.

n mny sclgcl survys, s hs bn st frth t th nrst sgm, wll-pd wrkrs, wh my lv n $40,000 huss nd snd thr chldrn t cllg, rgstr nswrs t qustnnrs tht stmp thm s ndstngushbl frm mddl-clss mntlts. S ls lbrrns (t tk nthr ccuptn knw smthng but). Vt strkng lbr rstcrts - sy, prntrs - cn f ncssry brk cmpny wndws, rmpg n pckt lns, bt up scbs, nd utrg thr frms f gntlty, wthut rusng nugh surprs t gnrt th sz f hdlns rsrvd fr thr-prsn studnt rts." n th thr hnd, undrpd lbrrns tnd t b unsy but ctully ccptng lflt but th d f rgnzng.

f wrkrs n pckt ln hv t b rstrnd frm bshng strkbrkr n n ccss f ndgntn, ths ds nt ncssrly gnsy th fct tht thr thnkng s mddl clss" nd rspctbl n sm sns; but bvusly thy r lss cnstrnd by th nrms f burgs rspctblty. Thr mltncy rflcts nt n mmdt stt f cnscusnss, but th fct tht thy r mr lntd frm burgs scty thn th qustnnrs shw. t rflcts n bjctv clss pstn tht my snr r ltr tnd t mld thr bhvr n clss-pttrnd stutns mr dcsvly thn d thr cnscusly hld scl vws - spclly n th cntxt f rgnztn nd struggl. n turn, nd n tm, clss-struggl ctn tnds t rmld cnscusnss; t rducts.

Mltncy, tkn s cllctv nd nt mrly s n ndvdul phnmnn, s n prncpl n ndx t th dgr f lntn chrctrstc f scl grup, crrspndng t ts lf stutn - ts bjctv rltnshp t th prductv prcss nd t th rsultng scl hrrchy nd prssurs. Ths prncpl s nt cnfnd t clss qustns. pprssd ntnl r thnc mnrts tnd t b mr mltnt thn thr cuntrprts n th dmnnt scty, lkws bcus thy r mr lntd frm th rulng ds f th rulng clss" whch dfn th rspctbl lmts f ppstnl psturs. n th cs f th prltrt, th rts f ths lntn l n th cptlst md f prductn. *

t s qut tru tht th psntry nd (sy) th ptty-burgs r ntrly cpbl f xplsns f vlnt rg whn drvn t dsprtn; n fct, t s prcsly ths clsss tht ffr th bst, r wrst, css f spsms f mndlss dstructvnss. Fw psds cn rvl th psnt Jcqurs r th rvgs f ptty burgs n frnzy fr brutl frcty, wth r wthut th nstgtn f clr rctnry hds. Ths s th typcl prxysm f blnd-lly dsprtn, t s cnfssn f mptnc, nt n ssrtn f strngth.

Thr s grt hstrcl dffrnc btwn bld mltncy nd gng brsrk. t ws t th frmr tht ngls rfrrd whn h cntrstd th bhvr f th stll undvlpd wrkng-clss frcs n th 1848 rvlutn wth th ptty-burgs. Th wrkrs, h ssrtd, dstngushd thmslvs frm th mddl clss n shwng upn vry ccsn, tht rvlutnry bldnss nd rdnss fr ctn, n whch ny prty, hdd by nd cmpsd prncplly f ptty trdsmn, wll lwys b dfcnt.

Th prltrt s th nly clss tht hs th scl wght n, pwr t crry thrugh th bltn f th ld rdr nd t buld nw scty.

Cntrbutng t ths clm r th fur chrctrstcs f th prltrt lrdy cnsdrd. But ths pnt s prmrly cncrnd wth nthr fctr, whch ls gs bynd th rthmtc f mr numbrs. Ths s th strtgc rl f th ndspnsbl srvcs prfrmd by th prltrt n kpng scty gng. f ll th nstrumnts f th cs f th prltrt, th rts f ths lntn l n th prductn, th grtst prductv pwr s th rvlutnry clss tslf," wrt Mrx. By th sm tkn, ths clss s t th lvrs f cnmc pwr nt by cnscus dcsn but by ts bjctv cndtns f xstnc. Th cnscus dcsn cncrns ts wllngnss t put ts hnds n th lvrs; ths s ndsputbly qustn f grt mmnt, but t rss bcus n thr clss hs th chc.

qulfctn t ths clm s th stutn f th tchnlgcl-scntfc mplys f sctr f th cnmy, nsfr s thy r cnsdrd t b utsd th wrkng clsss (untru fr mst f thm, frm Mrxs stndpnt) r nsfr s thy r tkn s sprt clss by thmslvs ( vw vn hrdr t justfy). n ny cs, th typ f rgumnt tht cn b md fr ths strtum nd ts ptntlty nly undrlns th cs fr th wrkng clss s whl. xprnc shws tht th whl f scty quvrs whn th wrkng clss strs; whn substntl sctr f t undrtks lrg-scl bttl, th uthrts rct s t cvl wr; nd ths s tru vn-n trrn fr frm rvlutn. t s tru n spt f ll th thss brdcst but th llgd fdng wy f th wrkng clss. S fr th prdc nnuncmnts tht th wrkng clss s bslt, hvng bn dsplcd by tchnlgy, utmtn, nd s n, hv nt bn rflctd n th rlts f scl struggl. *

Bhnd ll f th frgng cnsdrtns s gnrlzd frmultn whch nds t b sttd. t s prhps mst clsly rltd t th thrd pnt. Mrxs thry ssrts tht nly th prltrt, by th cndtns f ts xstnc, mbds scl prgrm pntng t n ltrntv t cptlsm.

Hwvr dsprt psntry r ptty-burgs my bcm, ths clsss cnnt gv scty ld n nw drctn, nt smply bcus f scl-psychlgcl cnstrnts, but bcus thr s n scl slutn tht ffctvly crrspnds t ths clsss ntrsts whl t th sm tm crrspndng t th ntrsts f scty n gnrl, ncludng th prsrvtn f th scl fbrc n tm f dsslutn nd crss. n cntrst, th wrkng clss, s th bttm lyr f th clss systm, cnnt str wthut bjctvly pntng t prgrm, vn whn t cnscusly rjcts t: nmly, th ssumptn f scl rspnsblty by dmcrtclly rgnsd ppl, rgrdlss f prvt ntrst - prgrm whch, cncrtsd, mns th bltn f cptlsm.

n hs Lttr t th Lbur Prlmnt mtng n Mnchstr n 1854, Mrx summrsd n sntnc why th wrkng clsss f Grt Brtn, bfr ll thrs, r cmptnt nd clld fr t ct s ldrs" n th mvmnt t mncpt lbr. Such thy r frm th cnscus clrnss f thr pstn, th vst suprrty f thr numbrs, th dsstrus struggls f thr pst, nd th mrl strngth f thr prsnt.

By th sm tkn, ths nd thr chrctrstcs r prcndtns fr th rl f clss ldrshp; s lng s thy r nt prsnt, th clss s nt ft t rul, s w shll s n th nxt chptr. n ths lght, t s nt qustn f hw th prltrt cn b dcvd, btryd, sducd, bught, brnwshd, r mnpultd by th rulng pwrs f scty, lk vry thr clss.

Th bsc pnt s tht t s th prltrt tht t s crucl t dcv, sduc, nd s n. n th sm lght, t s nt qustn f gurnts f vctry, ssurncs f ptmsm, nd thr rrlvncs. Mrx pnts: hr , nt thr, s th rn f dcsn, th drctn f hp.


Cntrst Mrxs mphss tht th trm prductv lbrr (s g nst unprductv) ws nt hnrfc but rflctn f cptlst cndtns (dscussd n Chptr 16 blw).

* Ths dstnctn s md mnly n thr r fur f Mrxs rlr wrtngs (up t 1852). t hs bn wdly dstrtd nt th clm tht fr Mrx clss xsts nly n th frm f cnscus rgnstn. Fr Mrxs lst us f ths bt f Hgls, s blw, Chptr 12, 9.

* lntn flbrundrcptlsm, nMrxsmtur thrywllb tuchd n gn nVlum 4. Frprsntpurpss tmyb suffcntt pntt th fllwngln fthught nC p t l : llmnsfrth dvlpmnt fprductntrnsfrmthmslvs nt mns fdmntn vr, nd xplttn f, th prducrs, thymutlt th lbrr nt frgmnt f mn, dgrd hmt th lvl f nppndg f mchn, dstry vryrmnnt fchrm nhswrk ndturn t nt htdtl, thy strng frmhmth ntllctulptntlts fth lbrprcss nth sm prprtn sscnc s ncrprtdn t s n ndpndntpwr; thydstrtth cndtnsundrwhchh wrks, subjcthmdurngth lbrprcsst dsptsmth mr htfulfr tsmnnss; thytrnsfrmhslf-tm nt wrkng-tm, nddrghswf ndchldbnthth whls fth juggrnut fcptl. Frth bgnnngs fthsvw, s KMTR 1, Chptr 7, 8

* Fr furthr dscussn f ths pnt, s Spcl Nt , n th bltn f th Prltrt by utmtn.

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