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: The marking of the Russian Revolution

: The marking of the Russian Revolution
:
: 17:10:31 27 2010
: 14 : 2 : 0 : 0 :    

TH MKNG F TH RUSSN RVLUTN

( ss y)

Th Grt Drss Rhrsl

Th Sclsts

Blshvks, Mnshvks nd Lbrls n 1905

Rtrt nd dvnc

Th Wr

Th Fbrury Rvlutn

Rrmng th Prty

ll Pwr t th Svts"

Rctn n th mv

Th nsurrctn

Th Blshvk Trdtn

Th Grt Drss Rhrsl

N 4 JNURY 1905, wrkrs t th gnt Putlv ngnrng fctry n St Ptrsburg struck n dfnc f fur sckd cllgus. Stfld nd pprssd fr yrs by hrsh wrkng cndtns nd th rgms scrt plc, th wrkrs t Putlv nw tstd frdm. Thy bgn t dscuss thr mprtnt mttrs. Mst prssngly, thy bgn t dmnd rductn n th hurs f wrk, nd mprvmnts n sntry cndtns nd hlth trtmnt. Vstng thr Ptrsburg fctrs t wn supprt fr thr ctn, thy sprkd ff mr dscussn: thrughut St-Ptrsburg wrkrs bgn ngrly t, r thr grvncs.

Sn th tlk ws nt nly f brd, wrk, nd survvl, but f frdm, f lctns, th rght t fr spch, nd n nd t cnsrshp. n th 9th Jnury, 200,000, wrkrs mrchd t th Wntr Plc t pttn th Tsr n ths mttrs. Wthn n wk, mnr trd unn dsput hd bcm mss pltcl mvmnt.

Th Tsr hmslf nw tk hnd n th pltcl dvlpmnt f hs subjcts. Hs trps frd nt th pcful nd unrmd crwd, thn hrsmn chrgd wth sbrs, wundng nd kllng mr thn 1,000. Gpn, prst wh hd mrchd t th hd f th dmnstrtn, xprssd th hrrr whch ths ctn rusd: rvr f bld, dvds th Tsr frm hs ppl. nd Lnn grmly drw th pltcl cnclusn: Th rvlutnry ductn f th wrkng clss md mr prgrss n n dy thn t culd hv dn n mnths nd yrs f drb, humdrum, wrtchd xstnc.

Lnn t ths tm ws n bscur xl, nd th sclsts f hs prty hd s fr plyd nglgbl, rl n vnts. Bldy Sundy, s th msscr cm t b knwn, dd nt chng ths vrnght. But th wrkrs f St Ptrsburg, thr pttns t th Tsr nswrd n bld, wuld nw lstn much mr sympthtclly t th ds f rvlutnry sclsts.

Th vnts f 1905, hwvr, wr lss sgnfcnt fr wht th wrkrs lrnd frm th rvlutnrs thn fr wht th rvlutnrs, r t lst sm f thm, lrnd frm th wrkrs. Tm nd gn n ths yr t ws th ndustrl wrkrs, tny mnrty n th vst ppultn f th Tsrs mpr, wh ld th struggl t chng scty. vn th bst sclsts wr tkn bck by th curg nd nvntvnss f th wrkng clss. Th wrkrs cuncl r svt ws nly th hghst pk f ths chvmnt; dlgt bdy f wrkrs, nn mr prvlgd thn ths h rprsntd; thrughly dmcrtc, yt cpbl f th mst cmplx tsks. nd ths ssmbly ws crtd nt by th prmptngs f grt thrsts, but by th Ptrsburg wrkrs thmslvs, s th bst vlbl mthd f rgnsng thr wn struggl - th gnrl strk n ctbr 1905.

Tht yr dd mr thn dmnstrt th cpcts f wrkrs; t thrw lght n th whl f Russn scty. t shwd tht utcrtc gvrnmnt, fr ll ts mchnry f rprssn, ws nt nvncbl, but wuld yld nly t rgnsd frc. t rvld tht th pr psntry, fr ll ts mnrchsm nd suprsttn, culd b frc fr chng. t pntd t cwrdc s th cntrl ftur f th Russn burgs, th grwng cptlst nd prfssnl clss, whs fr f th wrkrs lwys utwghd ts fr f th utcrcy. nd mst mprtnt, t shwd tht th ntr scty ws n lngr th rdrd nd stbl systm f ld, but mss f cntrdctns whch mght wthut wrnng xpld nt pn cnflct.

Th ld Rgm

FR DCDS th Russn Tsrs hd ruld thr mpr unchllngd. Thr wr, t s tru, lbrl crcls nd psnt rbllns, but ths wr lwys quckly sltd nd smshd. Th mnrchy, wth ts curtrs, nblty nd rlgus hngrs-n, cntnud t rul n much th sm mdvl wy s hd ts prdcssrs. Untl th lst qurtr f th nntnth cntury th nly srus chllng t th pstn f th utcrcy cm frm utsd th frntrs f ts mpr.

n Wstrn urp systm ws dvlpng whch, ultmtly, wuld undrmn th bss f Tsrdm. Th nw cnmy f nglnd, Frnc nd Grmny ws dffrnt frm ny whch hd gn bfr t: cptlsm s th nly mthd f rgnsng prductn n hstry fr whch, xp ns n s cndtn f ts wn survvl. s th ndustrl cnms f urp grw n cmpttn wth ch thr, s thy wr frcd t lk utwrds - fr mrkts, fr rw mtrls, fr nw pprtunts t mk prfts. n th prcss, ntv ndustrs wr dstryd nd hug rs f th plnt subrdntd s clns f th cptlst pwrs.

Th mltry strngth f ths pwrs grw lngsd thr cpcty t prduc mr, nd mr ddly, wpns; nd ths, n thr turn, wr usd t nfrc th dmnnc f th bg ndustrl cnms. T survv n th jungl, th rulrs f Russ wuld hv t lrn nw wys f fghtng.

ftr 1880 Russn ndustry xpndd mssvly. But th mn drvng frcs bhnd ts grwth wr nt, s n nglnd nd Frnc, ntv prvt busnssmn. Frgn ndustrlsts prvdd mst f h plnt nd mchnry fr Russn xpnsn, nd frgn bnks mst f th cptl. Bhnd bth std th Tsrst stt tslf, prvdng ddtnl cptl, plcng hug rdrs fr yrs n dvnc, tghtly plcng th wrkfrc, nd gurntng by ll mns th prfts f th Grmn txtl mgnts nd th Frnch stck xchng, th ntv Russn burgs ws mrkd frm th frst by ts scndry rl n th cuntrys dvlpmnt, by ts dpndnc n frgn nd stt cptl. ts rl f junr prtnr dd nt ncurg my grt thughts but chngng scty. t clung t th prn strngs f th Tsr nd nvr brk wy. Th urgnt tsk f clrng wy fudl ddwd wuld b ttmptd by dffrnt frcs - wth dffrnt bjctvs.

Th lrgst frc whch std t gn frm chng ws th mss f th psntry. Th frdm grntd t thm n 1861, whn srfdm vs blshd, ws stll bng pd fr: n xrbtnt rnts whch thy wr frcd t py fr tny subsstnc plts f lnd, n th nrmus dbts whch thy stll wd fr th rght t lbur n ths ptchs f sl, nd n th hurs f wrk whch mllns wr blgd t prfrm fr th grtr cmfrt f thr lcl lrds. Cty lbrls purd scrn m th gnrnt psnts; ptty prprtrs, cnsrvtv t th mrrw, wh wuld lwys ct n th srvc f rctn. Tm wuld tll.

Mnwhl rund th mjr twns, ndustrl suburbs wr grwng. n thm lvd nd wrkd th fctry pr l t r t, th nw ndustrl wrkng clss. Ths nw clss hd bn rcrutd strght frm th cuntrysd. t hd lttl trnng, pltcl knwldg r xprnc, but ths vry dfcncs culd turn ut t b ssts. Fr lthugh th ndustrl wrkrs hd n sclst r trd unn trdtn, nthr wr thy wghtd dwn wth th cnsrvtsm nd sctnlsm f wrkng clsss such s th nglsh, wth ts lng hstry f guld nd crft rgnstn. Frm thr frst grt strk mvmnt n th 1890s, th Russn wrkrs shwd trmndus cpcty bth t struggl nd t lrn. Thugh ndustrl wrkrs stll frmd nly smll mnrty f th ppultn, t quckly bcm vdnt tht whvr ld thm hld th ky t th rvlutnsng f Russ.

Th Sclsts

TH TSRST utcrcy hd lwys rusd ppstn, nd n th rly 1860s n rgnstn wth pnly sclst sprtns bgn t b ctv. But th Lnd nd Frdm prty, ltr nmd th Ppls Wll, rflctd th bckwrdnss f Russ. t bsd ts hps fr sclsm nt n th wrkng clss, whch hrdly thn xstd, but n th psntry, sndng ts yung mddl-clss mmbrs nt th cuntry t prch gnst th mnrchy. But th psnts grtd ths wll-hld mbssdrs wth dstrust nd vn hstlty. Gng t th Ppl fld cmpltly, nd sctns f Ppls Wll bgn t turn t mr drct mthds. n 1881 thy succdd n ssssntng Tsr lxndr . Ths nly nbld th stt t slt thm furthr, rducng th mvmnt t fw sltd grups.

t ws n ths prd tht th frst Mrxst rgnstn, th Lgu fr th mncptn f Lbur, ws frmd. ts fundr, G. V. Plkhnv, cntndd tht th ld, cmmunl rgnstns f th psnts, n whch Ppls Wll plcd s much strss, wr n dcy. Th dvlpmnt f cptlsm n Russ, fr frm bng mpssbl, ws nvtbl, nd wth t wuld b brn n urbn wrkng clss, th futur gnt f sclsm.

Fr mny yrs th rgumnt ws cnductd bstrctly, n clndstn dscussn crcls. But n th md-1890s mssv strk wv prvdd th pprtunty fr Mrxsts t ngg n mr prctcl ctvty - gttn. Lnn ws n such gttr. Fr svrl yrs h hd bn ttrctd by th drng nd slf-scrfc f th trrrsts, bcmng Mrxst nly n 1892/3. Nw, fr th frst tm, h bgn t lrn hw t rlt hs ds drctly t wrkrs. Krupsky, Lnns wf, gvs sm nsght nt th purly tchncl dffcults whch ths nvlvd:

rmmbr whn Vldmr llch drw up th frst lflt fr th wrkrs f th Smynnkv wrks. W hd n tchncl fclts t ll thn. Th lflt ws cpd ut n prntd lttrs nd dstrbutd by Bbushkn. ut f fur cps, tw wr pckd up by th wtchmn, whl tw wnt rund frm hnd t hnd.

Whn gttn bgn thr ws much grumblng mngst th Mrxsts, wh wr usd t dscussn crcls nd lkd dwn n th ffrt t dstrbut lflts t gnrnt wrkrs. Thn, whn th strk wv cllpsd nd nthr nw strtgy ws rqurd, mny f th cmrds wr gn rluctnt t chng thr wys. Ths tm th ppstn tk th frm f n-sdd strssng f purly trd-unn ssus, knwn s cnmsm. Th cnmsts wntd t cncntrt slly n trd unn ctvty nd t cnfn pltcs t dmndng lgl cncssns frm th rgm. Ths rfrmst utlk ws smlr t tht f th lbrls. gnst thm, Lnn nd Plkhnv strssd th mprtnc f mntnng ctvty n wd rng f pltcl ssus.

By 1902 ntnl rgnstn f sclsts hd bn bult rund th nwsppr skr (Th Sprk). n tht yr, t th scnd prty cngrss, n unxpctd splt ccurrd whch thrtnd t wrck th whl chvmnt. Th dsgrmnt hngd n tw ssus: frst, n whthr mmbrshp f th prty shuld b n th bss f ss c t n wth r ctv p rt c p t n; nd scnd, whthr thr vtrn sclsts, wh wr cntrbutng lttl t th prductn f skr , shuld cntnu s ts dtrs.

Lnn nd hs supprtrs (knwn s th B lsh v ks, mnng mjrty) wr fr tghtly rgnsd prty, n whch bth th mmbrs nd th dtrs shuld b ccuntbl. Lnn rgud tht th tttud f Mrtv nd hs grup (th mnrty, r M nsh v ks) rflctd th undscplnd hbts f th ld dscussn crcls nd th ntllctuls wh dmntd thm. Ths ws tru, but undrnth th rgumnt wr dvlpng tw vry dffrnt ssssmnts f th rl whch th vrus clsss wuld ply n rvlutn. Th vnts f 1904-7 rsd t th surfc ths submrgd dsgrmnts nd prvd th splt ws n trvl r tmprry ffr.

B lshvks, Mnshvks nd Lbrls n 1905

N FBRURY 1904, Russ dclrd wr n Jpn, wth th full pprvl f th burgs clsss. By lt summr, hwvr, t bcm pln tht th wr ws gng bdly, nd sctns f th mddl clss bgn t gt cld ft. Lndlrds, ndustrlsts nd prfssnl ppl bgn t us th tthlss prvncl ssmbls t muttr gnst th wr nd t mk spchs but th nd fr cnsttutn. Ths ltr frmd thmslvs nt prty clld th Cnsttutnl Dmcrts, r Cdts fr shrt.

Th Mnshvks st grt str by th lbrls cmpgn, nd urgd th wrkrs t supprt t. Thy wrnd rptdly tht ndpndnt wrkrs ctn wuld scr th lbrls bck nt th cmp f rctn nd shuld thrfr b vdd. t th rt f ths ws th Mnshvks cnvctn tht th rvlutn n bckwrd Russ hd frst t cnfn tslf t wnnng dvncs such s ths lrdy wn n th wst, fr xmpl fr lctns. Ths burgs lbrts, thy sd, culd b wn nly wth th ctv supprt f th burgs.

Th Blshvks grd tht th bjctvs f th rvlutn must b lmtd but rgud frcfully tht th burgs wuld nvr fght fr thm. Lnn sd tht th burgs

frs t ls n ths struggl ts prprty whch bnds t t th xstng rdr; t frs n ll-t-rvlutnry ctn f th wrkrs, wh wll nt stp t th dmcrtc rvlutn but wh wll spr t th sclst rvlutn; t frs cmplt brk wth ffcldm, wth th burucrcy, whs ntrsts r bund up by thusnd ts wth th ntrsts f th prprtd clsss.

S th Blshvks lwys xpsd th lbrl cmpgns, nd rfusd t tg lng bhnd thm, cntnully strssng th mprtnc f ndpndnt wrkng-clss pltcs.

Th wrkrs rl lls, sd th Blshvks, wr th pr psnts, nd nt th lndlrds f th Cdt prty, wh shwd thr clss clurs by rfusng t supprt th xprprtn f th lrg lndd stts. vn th mst lmntry lbrts culd b stblshd nly by th gvrnmnt f rvlutnry-dmcrtc dcttrshp f th prltrt nd psntry. Such gvrnmnt, whl rgnzd dmcrtclly, wuld nt shrnk frm usng hrsh msurs gnst th prprtd mnrts.

Th Blshvks wr rght. ntlly th lbrl burgs supprtd th ctbr strks. But th struggl, ld by th wrkrs, quckly gv rs t wrkng-clss dmnds - such s fr th ght-hur dy. Th burgs thn mvd shrply rghtwrds. Th Mnshvks sn fllwd. Th psntry, hwvr, shwd trmndus ptntl. Rts, th xpulsn f lndlrds nd th szng f cttl nd grn sprd wdly n 1905. Thugh frquntly mnrchst n tttud, th psnts dmndd lnd nd n nd t thr pprssn - nd wr wllng t fght fr t.

Th Blshvks, thn, hd rrvd t th crrct undrstndng f th rl f th dffrnt clsss n Russ. Thy grspd th thry. But n th dffcult tsk f pplyng tht thry t th rl struggl thy md mny mstks. Durng th prd f th trmndus upsurg f wrkrs struggls n 1905, thy fld fr mnths t pull wrkrs nt th prty cmmtts, nd ftn tk sctrn tttud t trd-unn dsputs. Ths prblms wr vntully vrcm, but nly thrugh much tm nd ffrt spnt n bttr ntrnl rgumnts.

n ctbr 1905 th Ptrsburg Svt ws frmd. Blshvk rgnsr, Krskv, w rn d g nst ths ntrgu by th Mnshvks nd th Blshvk cntrl cmmtt vn rslvd t byctt th Svt unlss t grd t ccpt th prtys prgrmm (thugh t dd nt crry ut th thrt). Th Ptrsburg Svt ws brn ut f th gnrl strk n ctbr, nd ntlly cncrnd tslf wth th rgnstn nd xtnsn f th strk. t sn fund tslf hvng t dl wth qustns such s th dstrbutn f fd nd th supply f pwr; t bgn nwsppr ( zv st ), nd whn ths ws supprssd, cmmndrd th prnt shps f burgs nwspprs; whn th Krnstdt mutnrs cm undr thrt f dth, th Svt rgnsd nw gnrl strk n thr dfnc; whn th Jw-btrs thrtnd pgrm, th Svt rgnsd rmd wrkrs mlts t ptrl th strts.

Th Svt ws th cntrl rgn f th wrkrs struggl n Ptrsburg, rgnsng pltcl strks, dmnstrtns nd rmd dfnc. Vry lttl mvd n th cptl wthut ts sy-s, nd s f n trbut, pttns cncrnng ll mnnr f grvncs cm t t ddrssd t Th Wrkrs Gvrnmnt, Ptrsburg. t ws, n fct, th mbry f wrkrs stt.

Hw, thn, culd th Blshvks b s sctrn n thr ntl rctn t t? nd why dd thy fl t rcrut wrkrs t thr cmmtts, nd tk lw vw f th trd-unn struggls whch wr brkng ut vrywhr n ths mmntus prd? Th nswr s tht thy wr lvng n th pst, n th prd f bttr fctnl struggl gnst th Mnshvks; whn th nd fr hghly-dscplnd prty f prfssnl rvlutnrs hd hd t b strssd gn nd gn; whn Blshvks hd t b shrply dlntd frm wht Lnn clld th Mrsh. n 1905, cndtns chngd wth bwldrng spd, nd mny cmrds culd nt kp pc.

Lnn nw-plyd ky rl. Rcgnsng tht th wrkrs, frm bng pthtc, hd suddnly bcm mr rvlutnry thn mst f th prtys mmbrs, h jnd frcs wth ths nwly-rdclsd, wrkrs, rgung nd cjlng tht thy tk up rspnsbl nd ldng prty pstns dspt thr lck f xprnc. Whn ths prcss gt undr wy, th tsk f fghtng sctrnsm bcm sr: th prty lrnd frm th wrkrs.

Th tndncy t b slw n dptng t nw cndtns ws ftur f th Blshvk Prty thrughut ts xstnc, nd t s prblm fr ll srus rvlutnry rgnstns. Th nd fr cnsstnt wrk rund stbl pttrns, whl vtlly ncssry, tnds t ld nt rutnsm, n unwllngnss t tk nw pltcl drctns. nd ths gvs rs t th nd fr wht Lnn clld bndng th stck, th nd t push hrd fr nw mthds whn nw crcumstncs dmnd thm.

Prt f Lnns grtnss ws hs blty t s whn nd hw t fght fr ths. Hs chvmnt cn b gugd nt nly frm th rvlutn whch succdd n 1917, but frm th n tht fld n 1905. Th Svts wr dftd; n Ptrsburg thr ldrs wr rrstd t th bgnnng f Dcmbr nd n Mscw n ttmptd nsurrctn ws smshd by mltry frc. n 1905 th bulk f th rmy rmnd lyl t th Tsr. But th Blshvks hd plyd ldng rl n th struggl, thy hd rcrutd tns f thusnds f th bst wrkrs, thy hd cnsstntly rgud clr nd hrd gnst th rfrmsts nd fr th rvlutnry vrthrw f th utcrcy, nd thy hd l rn d n nrmus munt n th curs f ths struggls. Th wrkng clss ws thrughly dftd by md-1907, but t ws nt dftd fr vr. Th Blshvks hd bult th cr f rvlutnry prty, whch, f t culd survv n th yrs f rctn, wuld b n strng pstn t ld th wrkng clss t vctry whn th clss rs gn.

R trt nd dvnc

N TH HT f th 1905 Rvlutn, cnsttutn f srts hd bn prclmd by th Tsr. Th stblshmnt ls f Dum r prlmnt mnt lttl n rl trms. ts mmbrs wr lctd n such wy tht wrkrs nd pr psnts culd hv n hp f lctng mr thn tkn numbr f rprsnttvs, nd n ny cs th Dum culd nt vrrd th uthrty f th Tsr.

Fr mr mprtnt lbrts wr wn by th drct ctn f th wrkrs. Fr spch nd fr prss, fr xmpl, xstd n prctc fr mnths, smply bcus th uthrts wr nt strng nugh t nfrc th lws whch dnd thm. Ths lstd nly s lng s th rvlutnry wrkrs mvmnt tslf. ftr th sprng f 1907, th gvrnmnt ws ncrsngly bl t crck dwn n mltnts, dsprs mtngs, nfrc cnsrshp, nd supprss sclst nwspprs.

But th gvrnmnt, nw ld by Stlypn, ws nt yt cntnt. t lunchd vcus cmpgn f rprssn n whch t lst 3,500 ppl wr xcutd. n ndustry, th mplyrs wnt n th ffnsv, unlshng cmpgn f lck-uts nd vctmstn. Wth th mss f wrkrs xhustd nd ntmdtd, sltd mltnts culd b pckd ff. Th Blshvk mmbrshp dclnd drmtclly, mny cmrds wr rrstd nd snt t Sbr, nd n by n th ldrs wr frcd nt xl brd.

Rctnry ds gnd grund n vry r. Sxul sdsm bcm fshnbl, nd clubs pnd t ndulg ths tst, whlst rpsts prwld th Nvsky Prspct n Ptrsburg. Blck Hundrds, dtchmnts f rclsts, drunknly rmd th strts, btng up nd ntmdtng Jws nd sclsts.

Ths cndtns prvdd Blshvsm wth ts strnst tst. Smply t survv s n rgnstn, t mntn ts prncpls, t rlt n ny wy t ll t th fw wrkrs struggls, tk trmndus curg nd frmnss f wll. t ls rqurd srs f brusng fghts bfr th prty culd b prsudd t dpt frm th rngng slgns nd mss rcrutmnt f 1905, t th hrsh nd unrwrdng cndtns f th rctn. Th tttud t b tkn by th prty t th Dum s n xmpl. Ths ws prclmd by th Tsr n 1905 t plct th ppstn t hs rul. t ws shm, nd shm ws wht t rmnd, vn n th prd f rctn. t s prncpl, sd mny Blshvks, tht w d nt prtcpt n ny wy n ths Tsrst ttmpt t pull th wl vr th ys f th wrkrs. grt mny xcllnt mltnts flt lk ths, nd t s hrdly surprsng. But thy wr wrng.

n 1905, wth th mss mvmnt dvlpng twrds rmd cnfrnttn wth th stt, th jb f rvlutnrs ws t prss fr nsurrctn nd t rsst ttmpts t dvrt th mvmnt nt prlmntry chnnls. But n th rctn ths prspctv ws smply drm. Th rvlutnrs hd t grt thr tth nd fc up t th rlty tht prtcptn n th lctns ws n f th fw pssblts fr pltcl wrk pn t thm. Lnn ntd tht th Mnshvks wr full f hgh-flwn phrss but th sgnfcnc f th Dum, whrs th Blshvks dspsd t n thr bns. Hwvr:

Snc th ccursd cuntr-rvlutn hs drvn us nt ths ccursd pg-sty, w shll wrk thr t fr th bnft f th rvlutn, wthut whnng, but ls wthut bstng.

Cnsdrd by ts lf, th Dum ws s much pg-sty n 1907 s t hd bn n 1905, but ts r l t n t th gnrl pltcl stutn chngd btwn ths yrs, nd th Blshvks hd t chng thr tctcs ccrdngly.

Th bttr rgumnt whch ths qustn rusd wthn th prty xtndd nt gnrl fctnl rw but lgl pltcl ctvty, whch ws svrly lmtd, s ppsd t wrkng undrgrund. Th bycttrs wr fr gnrng ll th vnus rmnng fr lgl ctvty, nd cntnud t rgu fr tctcs pprprt t th rvlutnry prd. Thr vry lft-wng rhtrc ctully cncld cnsrvtsm: th rfusl t dpt, t chng n rspns t dvlpmnts n th rl wrld. t ws ssntl fr th Blshvks t tk pprtunts fr lgl pltcl ctvty - but n th rght trnd dvlpd whch wntd t mk lgl ctvty th nly r f ntrvntn, nd t cls dwn th undrgrund clls. Ths wuld hv mnt bndnng mst f th pltcl wrk rund th fctrs, nd rflctd th xhustn nd dmrlstn f mny mmbrs n th fc f th nrmus dffcults prsntd by ths srt f ctvty durng th rctn.

Th fght gnst bth f ths trnds ws md th mr dffcult bcus vn th rnks f Lnns supprtrs wr ffctd by th md f dmrlstn nd by th tmpttn t ndulg n mpty slgnsng. N mss mvmnt f wrkrs xstd t brk th md, t xps nd crrct th rhtrc.

Stll, th rgumnt ws wn nd th wrk wnt n: th prty rgnsd pnly - n lctns nd s wrkrs rprsnttvs n th hlth nsurnc schms - nd undrgrund t, whr n th fctrs, llgl clls cntnud t mt, t rgns th scrt dstrbutn f pltcl lflts nd pmphlts, nd t ply rl n th fw struggls whch dd dvlp. Th tsk ws humdrum, dffcult, unrwrdng nd ftn dngrus, but t culd nt b vdd. Th prty whch bndns ts bsc prncpls, r whch bndns srus wrk n th clss whch t blvs cn chng scty, tht prty bndns n prctc rvlutnry pltcs tslf. Th frmnss f th Blshvks n ths mttrs, cmbnd wth tctcl flxblty, nsurd thr survvl thrugh th rctn nd md pssbl spctculr gns whn th upswng fnlly rrvd.

nd rrv t dd. Fllwng n cnmc rvvl, th plc frd n strkng mnrs n Ln, Sbr, kllng r wundng mr thn 500. Thrughut Russ, wrkrs hld ndgnnt prtst mtngs, dmnstrtns nd strks: 300,000 wnt n strk n prl 1912, nd 400,000 cm ut n My Dy. Th mvmnt cntnud fr mnths nd th gnrl pltcl dmnds f 1905, such s th slgn fr dmcrtc rpublc, wr gn hrd n th fctrs nd n strt dmnstrtns.

Nw t bcm pssbl t wrk much mr pnly. Th Blshvks bgn nwsppr, Pr vd , nd usd t s n rgnsr mngst th wrkrs, by stblshng grups n th fctrs t sll nd mk cllctns fr th ppr. Bth Blshvks nd Mnshvks grw n ths mr fvurbl cndtns, but th Blshvks grw mr quckly mngst wrkrs, nd much mr quckly mng th wrkrs f th mltnt nd pltcl St Ptrsburg r. Fgurs publshd n th Blshvk nwsppr Prvd md ths pln. By July 1914, th Blshvks hd 639 wrkrs grups rgnsd n th prvncs, nrly twc s mny s th Mnshvks 364. n St Ptrsburg thy hd mr th n f v t m s s mny, wth 1,276 t th Mnshvks 224.

n 1905-7, th tw prts hd bn vnly blncd, but whn th Frst Wrld Wr brk ut n th summr f 1914 th Blshvks wr dmnnt mng mltnt wrkrs.

Th Wr

BY JULY 191.4, th Russn wrkng clss ws mvng frwrd twrd rvlutn. n Ptrsburg 130,000 wrkrs wr n pltcl strk gnst th prscutn f trd unns nd wrkrs nwspprs. n th strts, lrg crwds bttld wth th plc, nd brrcds wr bult n th wrkng-clss dstrct f Vbrg. Th dclrtn f wr n 1 ugust stppd th mvmnt dd. By drummng up ptrtc hystr, th gvrnmnt ws bl t splt th Ptrsburg wrkrs, mblsng nt th rmy hug numbrs f thm nd dprtng 1,000 Blshvks.

Th wr fcd sclsts wth nw prblms, nd nt nly n Russ. ll vr urp, th wrkrs mvmnts wr slncd by th clmur f jngsm, nd clss struggl ws frgttn s wrkrs quud up fr th trnchs. Wh wuld dfnd th dls f ntrntnlsm? vrywhr th ys f sclsts turnd twrds th Grmn Scl Dmcrtc Prty, wth ts nrmusly pwrful rgnstns nd ts rputtn s th hdqurtrs f ntrntnl Mrxsm. But fcd wth th blunt chc btwn crryng n th clss struggl undrgrund r supprtng ts wn gvrnmnt, th Grmn prty ptd t fght fr Grmn cptlsm gnst th wrkrs f thr ntns.

n by n th prts whch hd frmd th Scnd ntrntnl nw trvlld th sm rd, shwng n th prcss tht ntrntnlsm ws fr ch f thm fn-sundng wrd whch mnt nthng whtvr n prctc. Lnn, mmntrly stunnd by th nws, sn dlvrd hs judgmnt: Th Scnd ntrntnl s dd, vrcm by pprtunsm.

T pps th wr, hwvr, ws nt nugh. T buld n ffctv ppstn, t ws ssntl t undrstnd th rgns f th wr nd ts rltn t th clss struggl.

Lnn bgn by rgung tht th wr ws mprlst n chrctr; tht th strngst cptlst pwrs, wth thr gnt mnpls nd bnks, wr nggd n bttr cmpttn fr dmntn f th wk. S frc hd ths cmpttn bcm tht t wuld nw b fught t th lvl f ll-ut wr. ny pc cncludd n th bss f xstng scty wuld thrfr nly rnfrc th xplttn nd pprssn f nn-tnths f th glb by th mprlst pwrs. S t pps th wr n mrl, pcfst, bss, t cll fr just pc ws ctully t mk pc wth th systm tslf. Th pcfsts wr bndnng th clss struggl n fvur f bstrct mrlsng.

Frm ths undrstndng, Lnn rrvd t sclst strtgy: fr sclsts th nly pssbl stndpnt ws t rgu tht wrkrs hd n ntrst n fghtng fr thr cuntry, fr vctry wuld nly strngthn th hnd f thr wn mplyng clss vr thm, but thy hd vry ntrst n fghtng fr thr clss. nly cvl wr, wth wrkrs thrughut urp turnng gnst thr wn gvrnmnts, wuld stp ths mprlst wr nd th slughtr f mllns f wrkrs. n ths bss, sclsts must wlcm th mltry dft f thr wn cuntrys gvrnmnt.

t fllwd tht th shrpst pssbl brk hd t b md wth th scl ptrts f th Scnd ntrntnl, wh n lnng up wth thr wn rulng clsss nd bndnng th clss struggl, wr pursung th ppst curs. N cmprms ws pssbl wth ths trtrs. Lnn urgd th frmtn f nw ntrntnl.

n Russ, th Mnshvks splt vr th qustn f th wr, nd thr ws sm cnfusn mng th Blshvks, prtculrly n thr Dum grup, but th vrwhlmng mjrty f th rnk nd fl ppsd th wr frm clss stndpnt. Lnns slgns shrpnd nd fcusd thr gttn. n urp, hwvr, th Blshvks rmnd lmst ttlly sltd: nly smll numbr f ndvduls nd grups supprtd thr pstn. Clrly, nw ntrntnl culd nt b smply prclmd; grt dl f pltcl wrk ws ndd t buld t.

s frst stp, Blshvk rprsnttvs tk prt n th nt-wr cnfrnc f sclsts t Zmmrwld n Swtzrlnd n Sptmbr 1915. Th dlgts vtd gnst th slgn turn th mprlst wr nt cvl wr, nd rfusd t cll fr brk wth th Scnd ntrntnl. Th Blshvk mnrty, whlst rgung hrd fr thr pstn, stll sgnd th cnfrnc mnfst, bcus t dd rprsnt cll fr sclsts t struggl gnst th wr.

s tm wnt n nd th wr bcm mr unppulr, mr sclsts wr ncurgd t tk frm pstn gnst t. Ths ws hppnng n Russ wthn fw mnths. Th wrkrs struggl ws rvvng quckly, nd by th tm f th Zmmrwld cnfrnc strks wr bgnnng t brk ut, ncludng pltcl strks n prtst t plc vlnc gnst wrkrs dmnstrtns. Th strngth f Blshvk rgnstn grw; n lngr culd thr clls b dstryd by rrsts. Thr mmbrshp n Ptrsburg (nw rnmd Ptrgrd n chuvnst grunds) ncrsd frm 1, 200 n July 1915 t 2,000 n Jun 1916 nd t 3,000 by th nd f th yr. Plc gnts rprts cnstntly bmnd th ffctvnss f prty gttn. Blshvk clls wr ctv n mst f th lrg fctrs n Russ.

ndustrl unrst ws nt th gvrnmnts nly prblm. Th wr plcd n nrmus strn n th whl cnmy, xpsng ts bckwrdnss thrugh th dsstrus dfts f ts prly-quppd trps. Dsstsfctn swpt th rmd frcs; sldrs dsrtd nd slrs mutnd, spurrd n by Blshvk gttrs. Tsrsm rspndd n th nly wy t knw, wth th whp.

But nthng culd stm th td f rblln nd dft. Th bhvur f gvrnmnt mnstrs bcm ncrsngly rbtrry nd ccntrc, nd th mnrchy lstnd mr ftn t bzrr chrctrs such s th mnk Rsputn. Ths nly rflctd ts pwrlssnss, ntwnd wth ll th rchc rmnnts f Russn scty, Tsrsm ws ncpbl f ffctv rfrms. t hd bcm prst n th dvlpmnt f scty. Th dsstrus prgrss f th wr srvd t brng ths nt shrp fcus, nd t unlsh th crss whch n mttr f dys swpt wy th cnturs-ld dynsty f th Tsrs.

Th Fbrury Rvlutn

N md-fbrury 1917, nly tn dys supply f flur rmnd n Ptrgrd. Th rgnl mltry cmmndr rdrd rtnng. n 16 Fbrury, wth th brd shps br, crwds gthrd, nd fr th nxt wk hungry wrkng-clss dmnstrtrs prtstd nd smshd wndws. n 23 Fbrury, whch ws ntrntnl Wmns Dy, vst crwds f wrkng-clss wmn flld th strts, dmndng brd. n th 24th, frty ppl wr klld by trps lyl t th Tsr - but th fllwng dy th sm rgmnt rfusd t fr. Svnty thusnd trps jnd th 385,000 wrkrs wh wr by nw n strk. n 28 Fbrury th lst rmnng lyl trps surrndrd. Th mnstrs wr rrstd nd thr Tsr bdctd.

Nt sngl rgnstn, nt th Blshvks r vn thr mst mltnt dstrct n Vbrg, hd clld fr th strks. Th Fbrury rvlutn ws ntrly spntnus nd rvld nc mr th cpcty f th Russn wrkng clss t ct n ts wn nttv. Wrkrs Svts wr crtd nc gn, nd ths tm sctns f th sldrs lrnd frm th wrkng clss, nd mvd t rgns thr wn Svts.

Yt th spntnty f th rvlutn ws t th sm tm ts wknss. Wthn fw dys th ldrshp f th Ptrsburg svt hd clld n th lbrl burgs t tk n th runnng f th cuntry, t frm Prvsnl Gvrnmnt. Hw s ths t b xplnd?

Th rvlutn ws yung, mmtur; t htd th utcrcy, nd crvd fr unty gnst t; t trustd ll th frcs whch clmd t stnd fr lbrty nd pc. S n ts rly dys th Svts wr dmntd pltclly by th Mnshvks nd th Sclst Rvlutnrs, th psnts prty whch ws vrwhlmngly strng mng th dlgts f psnts n unfrm. Ths, wth th Cdts, std fr rfrms, nd lkd t th lbrl burgs t prsd vr ths rfrms. t fllwd tht th burgs wuld hv t b gvn pwr.

But mttrs wr nt qut s smpl. t th tp, th Prvsnl Gvrnmnt mght ssu dcrs nd mk dcsns n ln wth th ntrsts f th burgs; but t th bttm, th swllng mvmnt f sldrs nd wrkrs ws rchng dcsns f ts wn. Sldrs rfusd rdrs, wrkrs wnt n strk. Th Prvsnl Gvrnmnt lckd th mns t nfrc ts wll. Thr ws Dul Pwr: th Prvsnl Gvrnmnt n th n hnd, th rvlutnry mvmnt n th thr. nd th tsk whch th ldrs f th Svt tk upn thmslvs n ths prd ws t r c nc l nd sub rd n t th rvlutn t th gvrnmnt.

Th tsk f th Blshvks, by cntrst, ws t xpln t th rvlutn, t th mss f wrkrs, sldrs nd pr psnts, tht thr ntrsts nd ths f th gvrnmnt wr rr c nc l bly pp s d.

Untl prl, th Blshvks wr ncpbl f ttmptng ths. Thy fld t dpt t nw nd cmplx stutn. T g frwrd, thy wuld frst hv t thrw vrbrd sm lng-hld blfs, nd clrfy thr ds by rltng thm t th nw dmnds f th struggl.

R rmng th Prty

CDTS, Mnshvks nd Sclst Rvlutnrs wr untd n thr hrty pprvl f th Prvsnl Gvrnmnt. t mght b prsumd tht th Blshvks, wth thr dsrvd rputtn fr hrd pltcs, wuld pps t wth qul frc. Ths dd nt hppn. Btwn th mnths f Fbrury nd prl, th gnrl ln f th prty, thugh t cntnd much cnfusn nd mprtnt vrtns, ws t supp rt th Prvsnl Gvrnmnt cndtnlly, r n s fr s t dfnds th gns f th rvlutn. t fllwd tht n mmdt cll culd b ssud fr n nd t th wr; undr th dtrshp f Stln nd Kmnv, Pr vd bckd th Prvsnl Gvrnmnt n ll th ssntl qustns.

Th pstn tkn by th Blshvks ws nt n ccdnt, but drvd frm th schm f rvlutn dvsd by thm mny yrs bfr. n 1905, Lnn hd nvsgd rvlutnry gvrnmnt f th wrkrs nd psnts, whch, n plc f th cwrdly burgs, wuld vrthrw th utcrcy nd stblsh burgs lbrts. But rl hstry prvd much mr cmplctd. Th wrkrs nd psnts hd ndd chvd p rt f ths tsk, hvng vrthrwn Tsrsm. But n ts plc thr nw xstd dul pwr, f wrkrs nd psnts n th n hnd, nd f th burgs n th thr. Lnns schm hd nt llwd fr ths; t hd strssd th cmmn ntrst f th tw sds n stblshng bsc lbrts, rthr thn th cnflct whch mght dvlp btwn thm.

nly Trtsky hd frsn such prblm n 1905. Hs slutn ws tht th wrkrs nd psnts hd t drv frwrd n pp s t n t th burgs nd stblsh sclsm.russn cnmc bckwrdnss wuld b prblm - but f th sclst rvlutn wr sprd t culd b vrcm wth ssstnc frm vctrus rvlutn n urp. Ths cm t b knwn s th thry f prmnnt rvlutn.

Nw, n 1917, wth th Russn burgs nmshd n wr, wth th wrkrs nd sldrs strugglng gnst t fr thr wn ntrsts, nd wth rvlutnry tttuds dvlpng thrughut urp, Lnn cm rund t Trtskys vws. Rturnng t Russ t th bgnnng f prl, h lunchd nt struggl t cnvnc th Blshvk Prty tht ld Blshvsm hd t b bndnd.

Th cntrl pnt n Lnns nw pstn ws tht th Prvsnl Gvrnmnt hd t b ppsd, nd ll pwr t th Svts ught t b th m nd slgn f Blshvsm. t frst h gt bslutly n supprt frm thr Blshvk ldrs; ndd mny f thm chrgd hm wth trchry, luncy, nrchy nd much mr. Yt t tk hm lss thn mnth t wn rund mjrty f th Blshvks. Why?

Crtnly, Lnns wn rputtn n th prty nd hs prsstnc nd prsusvnss n rgumnt wr mprtnt. But vn mr pwrful fctrs wr t wrk. Fr Lnn ws nt ntrly ln. Th Vbrg dstrct f Ptrgrd, fr xmpl, hd supprtd th trnsfr f pwr t th Svts snc th rlst dys f th rvlutn. Vbrg ws th mst dvncd nd mltnt wrkng-clss dstrct f Ptrgrd, whr th bggst wrkplcs wr lctd. s tm wnt n, s dsllusnmnt wth th burgs gvrnmnt nd ts wr sprd, nd s mr nd mr sctns f wrkrs nd sldrs wr drwn nt cnflct wth t, th rdclsm f Vbrg sprd. s n rly cnvrt t Lnns pstn, Ludmll Stl, rmrkd: n ccptng th slgns f Lnn, w r nw dng wht lf tslf suggsts t us.

Lnn gt hs wy t th ll-Russn Blshvk Prty cngrss n th lst wk f prl, but ths culd nly b chvd bcus hs vws cncdd wth th prctcl xprnc f th mst dvncd nd mltnt sctns f wrkrs.

ll Pwr t th Svts"

TH DPTN by th Blshvks f thr nw ln ppsng th Prvsnl Gvrnmnt nd th wr brught thm nt ln wth th flngs f th mst mltnt wrkrs nd sldrs. Hundrds f thusnds wr mvng twrds rjctn f th gvrnmnt nd ts wr. But ths mltncy ndd t b fcusd n sngl pstv purps: ll Pwr t th Svts. Th Blshvks, sd Lnn, must ptntly xpln ths, must wn mjrty f th wrkng clss t th trnsfr f pwr t th Svts. Th slgn fund n gr udnc.

Sctns f th trps wr lmst t th nd f thr tthr. f th 15 mlln mn wh hd bn clld up, but hlf wr dd, wundd r mssng. Th dscpln f whl rgmnts ws crckng, vn bfr Fbrury, nd th rvlutn cclrtd ths prcss. Sldrs flt tht th nd f utcrcy ught ls t mn th nd f rbtrry dscpln nd brbrc punshmnts such s flggng. Dsrtn nd dsbdnc f rdrs grw t such prprtns tht vn th svt ldrshp, whch stll supprtd th Prvsnl Gvrnmnt, ws frcd t mk cncssns f Russ ws t rtn ny rmy t ll. Thy ssud rdr Numbr n, mpwrng sldrs t lct thr wn cmmtts whch, mngst thr thngs, wuld cntrl ll th rmmnts f ch unt. Dul pwr thus dvlpd n th rmy. nd just s n cvln lf, t ws unstbl, nd ld t struggl fr cntrl btwn th ld Tsrst ffcrs nd th rdnry sldrs.

n th flt, mttrs wr vn mr dvncd. lrg mdrn wrshp s mr lk fctry thn brnch f th rmd frcs. Cllctv rgnstn nd wll-dfnd dvsn f lbur r ssntl t run such vssl. Th cstl frtrsss f Krnstdt nd Hlsngfrs wr strnghlds f Blshvsm; thr slrs wr t ply cntrl rl n th ctbr Rvlutn.

n thr gttn mngst th rmd frcs th Blshvks urgd n th mvmnt fr dmcrtc cntrl, cllng fr th lctn f ffcrs. Thy ncurgd th dsr fr pc, rgung fr frtrnstn wth th Grmn sldrs crss th frnt ln. nd thy xplnd tht wht ths mnt n pltcl trms ws th vrthrw f th Prvsnl Gvrnmnt, whch wuld nvr brk wth th ngl-Frnch mprlst llnc, nd th trnsfr f pwr t th Svts. Blshvk mmbrshp mng th sldrs grw frm 6,000 n prl t 26,000 n Jun.

Blshvk nflunc mng th psntry, hwvr, ws stll smll. Th prty rcgnsd th nrmus ptntl f th mvmnt n th cuntry. But t ls undrstd tht th pr psnts hd n mbguus pltcl utlk. pprssd nd xpltd by th lndlrds, thy wr prplld nt pltcl ctn gnst thm. Yt thy ls rmnd ptty pr pr t rs, wddd t th ndvdul wnrshp f prprty. Th psntry nd ts pltcl rprsnttvs wuld thrfr v c ll t , btwn th wrkrs nd th burgs, btwn th sclsts nd th lbrls. t ws up t th prty f th wrkrs - th Blshvks - t ld th psnts, t drw thm bhnd th wrkrs mvmnt.

ftr Fbrury 1917 ths bcm ncrsngly pssbl nd ncssry. Th rdclsm f dsrtng nd dmblsd sldrs nflmd th grvncs f th psnts. ttcks n lndwnrs nd th burnng f thr mnr huss ncrsd shrply thrughut th sprng. Th psnt Sclst Rvlutnry Prty cntnud t urg ts supprtrs t wt untl nw lnd rfrm ws pssd. But th psnts ptnc ws wrng thn. Undr prssur frm blw, th Sclst Rvlutnrs splt nt lft nd rght. Th Blshvks urgd th psnts nt t wt, but t st but th rdstrbutn f lnd thrugh thr wn lcl cmmtts. By lt summr hug numbrs wr strtng t hd thr dvc.

n th ndustrl wrkng clss th Fbrury Rvlutn st n mtn strks fr wg ncrss, nd mr wrkrs st up thr wn fctry cmmtts nd bgn t dmnd cntrl vr hrng nd frng nd, mr gnrlly, vr th ctvts f mngmnt. Th Blshvks gv full supprt t ths mvmnt, lnkng cntrl vr th fctry t cntrl, thrugh th Svts, vr scty s whl. Th Blshvk nflunc n th fctry cmmtts grw quckly.

Blshvk strngth ws, n fct, grwng lmst vrywhr btwn prl nd July n th bss f thr gnrl dmnds fr n nd t th wr, fr lnd t th psnts nd fr ll pwr t th Svts. But ths grwth ws unvn. Blshvk dmnnc n th flt, n sm rgmnts nd n th lrgst fctrs f Ptrgrd ws nt rflctd thrughut Russ. Mnwhl, ths sctns whch 23 hd bcm rdclsd wr bcmng mptnt: hvng rchd th d f vrthrwng th Prvsnl Gvrnmnt, thy wntd t lunch th blw mmdtly. Ths prsntd th Blshvks wth sm cut tctcl prblms. Whr th prty ws xpndng t spctculr spd nd cmmndd mjrty, ts lcl ldrshp bgn t lstn t dmnds fr th szur f pwr. n such r ws Ptrgrd.

n md-prl, th Frgn Mnstr, Mlukv, snt nt t th lls prmsng wr tll vctry. ndgntn nd xctmnt muntd n Ptrgrd. Mr thn 20,000 sldrs mrchd wth wpns, rusng th wrkng-clss dstrcts n th prcss. gn, n md-Jun, nws f mltry ffnsv nfurtd th trps.

n bth ths ccsns t ws vtl fr th Blshvks t hld bck th mptnt lcl prty mmbrs. rmd dmnstrtns hd t b dscurgd, vn ppsd, nd vn slgns such s Dwn wth th Prvsnl Gvrnmnt bndnd. Such slgns, thugh crrct n th lng trm, wuld n th crcumstncs b ntrprtd s cll fr th mmdt szur f pwr. nd ny such ttmpt wuld hv bn ftl. Fr utsd Ptrgrd nd n r tw ndustrl nd mltry cntrs th Blshvks wr n rltvly smll mnrty. n nsurrctn n th cptl wuld hv bn quckly sltd nd crushd. Th Blshvks stll hd lt f ptnt xplnng nd sld buldng t d.

Ths dd nt prvnt thm frm dsplyng thr strngth: n th Jun dys thy wr frcd t cll ff thr dmnstrtn. But such ws th prssur f th wrkrs nd sldrs ndgntn t th nw mltry ffnsv tht th ldrs f th Ptrgrd Svt wr frcd t cll dmnstrtn f thr wn. nd n ths, Blshvk slgns nd Blshvk supprtrs wr vrwhlmngly dmnnt.

R ctn n th mv

TH MSS MVMNT gnst th nw mltry ffnsv cntnud fr svrl wks nd culmntd n hug dmnstrtn f lmst hlf mlln wrkrs nd sldrs rmd t th tth nd wth rd bnnrs nd plcrds dmndng th trnsfr f pwr t th Svts, n th wrds f th nwsppr zv st . But th svt ldrs hd n ntntn f brkng wth thr frnds n th Prvsnl Gvrnmnt.

Hvng dn thr bst t rstrn th Ptrgrd wrkrs nd sldrs frm prmtur ctn, th Blshvks clld fr n nd t th dmnstrtns. Th gvrnmnt nw rgnsd furus wtch-hunt gnst th Blshvks n gnrl nd Lnn n prtculr, whm thy chrgd wth bng n th py f th Grmns. Lrg numbrs f wrkrs nd sldrs blvd ths llgtns, nd fr sm wks cndtns bcm dffcult. Th Blshvk prss ws clsd dwn nd mny f ts ldrs wr rrstd. Lnn hmslf wnt nt hdng.

Th rctnrs nw bgn t try t tk dvntg f th pprnt sltn nd unppulrty f th Blshvks nd th cnfusn nd dspndncy whch hd dvlpd n th wk f th grt dmnstrtns f Jun/July. Th dth pnlty ws rstrd t th frnt n 12 July. Th gnrls wntd t g furthr: t dsslv th sldrs cmmtts ltgthr; but ths ws nvr ttmptd bcus t ws frd tht th sldrs wuld rsst t th pnt f butchrng thr ffcrs. n ndustry, th mplyrs md strnuus ffrts t drv bck th mvmnt fr wrkrs cntrl nd r-stblsh thr rght t hr nd fr t wll. Lck-uts bcm cmmn.

But th rctn md nly prtl nd tmprry hdwy. Th wrkrs nd sldrs mvmnt ws smply t strng. Whn th frst shck f th spy-slndrs hd wrn ff, th Blshvk rgnstn mrgd wthut srus lss. vn bfr th nd f July, t ws bgnnng t rbuld ts strngth.

By ugust th Russn mltry ffnsv hd cllpsd, th mplyrs cmpgn f lck-uts hd fld, nd mllns f psnts wr szng th lnd. Th rmy f th nrthrn frnt ws nw n stt f dvncd dsntgrtn nd th rbllus md f ts sldrs ws sprdng rpdly t th trps f th suth-wst frnt.

ll ths cnvncd th rctnry gnrls nd sctns f th rulng clss tht ctn t smsh th rvlutn hd t b tkn mmdtly whl ctn ws stll pssbl t ll. Thy bgn t dscuss mltry cup.

Snc th July dys, th ldrshp f th gvrnmnt hd bn n th hnds f Krnsky, whs pltcl rl ws t ttmpt cmplctd blncng ct. H ttmptd t cnclt th gnrls n th n hnd; but t th sm tm h hd t rtn th cnfdnc f th sclst ldrs f th Svts, wh wd thr pstn t th llgnc f mllns f wrkrs, sldrs nd psnts. Ths srusly rstrctd Krnskys rm fr mnuvr. s th crss dpnd nd th gnrls grw mr dmndng, s Krnsky ws frcd t mv t th rght, but th pptt f rctn grw fstr thn Krnskys blty t stsfy t. Whn sctns f th ld rulng clss bgn t dmnd strng ldr Krnsky ws nxus t ccmmdt thm, nd ppntd Gnrl Krnlv s cmmndr-n-chf f 25 th rmy. But ths ws nt nugh fr Krnlv nd hs supprtrs; thy wr ftr suprm pwr, blnk chqu t supprss th rvlutnry mvmnt by frc, nd t rstr th ld rdr.

n 21 ugust th Bltc prt f Rg fll t th Grmn rmy. Th nrthrn frnt thrtnd t cllps ntrly, ndngrng Ptrgrd tslf. Krnlv nw bgn ngttns wth Krnsky fr th ntrductn f mltry rul n th cptl undr hs prsnl cmmnd. t th lst mmnt Krnskys curg fld nd h ssud sttmnt dnuncng Krnlv nd rmvng hm frm th pstn f cmmndr-n-chf. t ws t lt. Cnvncd f hs supprt mngst th tp gnrls nd bg busnss, Krnlv lunchd hs frcs gnst Ptrgrd.

Th Blshvks, drvn nt llglty nd slndrd s Grmn sps by Krnsky, nw rs t dfnd hm! Fr th cup ws drctd nt t Krnsky hmslf, but t th Svts whs ldrshp gv hm shltr. Th Blshvks culd nt rmn nutrl whn th ft f th Svts ws t stk. Thy hd t fght Krnlv. But thr culd b n qustn f slppng nt supprt fr th gvrnmnt. ctully thy hd t fght n tw frnts t nc, wth tw mthds: gnst Krnlv wth bullts nd brrcds, nd gnst Krnsky wth wrds; wth nsstnt dmnds fr th rmng f th wrkrs, fr wrkrs cntrl t stp th sbtg f th bsss, fr th trnsfr f lnd t th psnts, nd fr ll msurs t rs th lvl f mss nthussm nd nvlvmnt n th struggl gnst rctn.

Whrvr pssbl th Blshvks crrd ut ths msurs thmslvs r prssd mss rgnstns t d s. Thrugh th fctry cmmtts thy wr bl t rgns 40,000 wrkrs nt dtchmnts f Rd Gurds. vrywhr, th Blshvks muntd trlss cmpgn f gttn nd rgnstn. By ths mthds, thy nt nly nsurd th cllps f Krnlvs cup: thy wr bl t cntrst th wknss f th gvrnmnt nd ts sclst supprtrs wth thr wn rvlutnry nrgy nd nthussm. Durng th curs f th fur-dy crss, much f th crdblty f th Mnshvk nd Rght Sclst Rvlutnry prts mltd wy.

Fcd wth vgrus dfnc, sltn frm th mss f sldrs nd th sbtg f hs trp mvmnts by th rlwy wrkrs, Gnrl Krnlv md gd hs scp. Hs dft brught Blshvsm t th brnk f pwr.

Th nsurrctn

N 31 UGUST, th Blshvks chvd mjrty n th Ptrgrd Svt. Trtsky ws lctd chrmn, pstn h hd ccupd nc bfr, durng th 1905 rvlutn. n 5 Sptmbr, Blshvsm wn cntrl n th Mscw Svt. By th mddl f th mnth th Svts f Kv nd Bku, f Fnlnd nd f mst f th ndustrl cntrs hd fllwd sut. Prty mmbrshp rchd qurtr f mlln.

Btwn 12 nd 14 Sptmbr Lnn wrt th frst f srs f urgnt lttrs frm hs plc f hdng t th Blshvk cntrl cmmtt undr th ttl Th Blshvks must ssum pwr. Tht ths ws rjctd ut f hnd dd nt dtr hm. H bgn bmbrdmnt f th whl prty wth lttrs, rtcls nd pmphlts n th qustn f stt pwr nd th crucl mprtnc f szng t wthut dly. Blshvsm, h rgud, ws n lngr sltd n Ptrgrd s t hd bn n July; t hd wn th mjrty f wrkrs, bckd by substntl numbrs f th psntry. n th rmy, th gvrnmnt hd cmpltly fld t rstr dscpln, fr th sldrs nw htd nt nly th wr nd th prmtv cndtns nd punshmnts; thy hd ls lrnd tht thr ffcrs wr fr Krnlv nd ll h std fr, nd dlt wth thm n such wy tht Krnsky ws frcd t ssu prclmtns gnst lynchng.

n lst-dtch ttmpt t blstr ts clm t ppulr supprt, th gvrnmnt cnvnd n lbrtly undmcrtc Dmcrtc Cnfrnc. nstd f bycttng ths chrd, nd rgnsng drct struggl fr pwr, th Blshvk cntrl cmmtt snt lng dlgtn, whch prcdd t wst svrl dys n mpty dscussn. Such bhvur culd nly cus cnfusn, nd just n pssbl xplntn xstd fr t: th cntrl cmmtt ws runnng wy frm vn thnkng but nsurrctn. Lnn, wth strng supprt frm Trtsky, fught fr wks gnst prtcptn n th Dmcrtc Cnfrnc nd ts succssr th Pr-Prlmnt.

vntully, n 5 ctbr, th cntrl cmmtt grd t th byctt. Fv dys ltr, ftr tn-hur mtng, thy pssd rslutn whch rcgnsd tht n rmd uprsng s nvtbl nd tht ts tm hs cm.

vn nw, sm cntrl cmmtt mmbrs wr bl t trt ths s mnng lttl: Sklnkv sd thr s lttl pnt n ntrprtng t s n rdr t ct. Stll mr srusly, Kmnv nd Znvv, hvng vtd gnst th nsurrctn, nw nnuncd bth th pln nd thr ppstn t t n th nn-prty prss. But nt vn th fury 27 f Lnn culd mv th cntrl cmmtt t xpl thm fr ths bltnt ct f trchry.

Hsttn nd nrt ws nt cnfnd t th tp lvl f th prty. Whn th dtls f th nsurrctn cm t b dscussd, th Blshvk ldrs n mst f th Ptrgrd dstrcts dsplyd lttl nthussm fr t. Hvng bn vr-mptnt n th July dys, thy hd nw lrnd th lssn t wll nd bcm vr-cutus, rprtng pssmstclly n th md f th wrkrs nd sldrs n th cptl. n gnrl th ldrshp ws rluctnt t ct.

nsurrctn s clssl gmbl, n whch th lsr lss vrythng, nd t s nt surprsng tht mny f th tp prty ldrs frd t ply fr such stks whn th mmnt rrvd. Yt thr pssmstc ssssmnt f th ppulr md ws nt smply n vsn f rspnsblty, r vn hrd-lrnd cutn n tkng n th frcs f th stt: th wrkrs w r lstlss nd dd nt fld nt th strts, fr n ths dcsv wks cm th clm bfr th strm:

th rvlutnry md f th msss bcms mr crtcl, mr prfund, mr unsy. Th msss r lkng - spclly f thy hv md mstks nd suffrd dfts - fr rlbl ldrshp. Thy wnt t b cnvncd tht w wll nd cn ld thm nd tht n th dcsv bttl thy cn cunt n vctry th prltrt sys Nthng mr s t b gnd frm strks, dmnstrtns nd thr prtsts. Nw w must fght.

Th uthr f ths lns ws Ln Trtsky. Trtsky dd nt bcm Blshvk untl th summr f 1917, but n th nxt fw mnths h cntrbutd nrmusly t th prty, dfndng t publcly n th wtch-hunt f July, suffrng mprsnmnt lngsd th Blshvk ldrs, nd stndng wth Lnn n th fght t wn th prty t th struggl fr pwr. Lnn ltr rmrkd tht snc Trtskys jnng thr hd bn n fnr Blshvk. Wth lng yrs f prty ldrshp bhnd hm, Lnn ws rrly wrng but th strtgy nd tctcs th prty shuld dpt. n Sptmbr nd ctbr h ws s nxus tht th Blshvks mght mss thr chnc, mght shrug ff rspnsblty fr th nsurrctn, tht h rsstd th d tht ny nn-prty bdy mght dlvr th blw. But hr t ws Trtsky wh undrstd bst tht t ws vtl fr th prty t tk pwr n th nm f th Ptrgrd Svt, snc th Svt culd cunt n th lylty f vn brdr sctns thn culd th Blshvks ln.

n 21 ctbr, th Ptrgrd Svt rcgnsd th Mltry Rvlutnry Cmmtt, bdy whch t hd tslf lctd, s th ldrshp f th trps n th cty, nd nstructd ll unts t rfus ny rdr nt sgnd by ths cmmtt. n th 24th, md grwng rumurs f pln t trnsfr rvlutnry rgmnts t th frnt, Krnskys cmmndr n Ptrgrd rdrd sldrs t cls dwn th Blshvk prsss. Th fllwng dy, svt frcs smply tk cntrl f th cptl, ccupyng ll strtgc pnts nd dsrmng ths fw ffcr cdts prprd t fght fr th gvrnmnt.

n Ptrgrd th rvlutn tk plc s smthly tht thr wr n csults. Th strtgy f Trtsky, nd hs prctcl ldrshp s chrmn f th Svt, ws thus brllntly vndctd. Yt t much shuld nt b md f hs hvng bn rght gnst Lnn n th prctcl mthd f th uprsng. Th rls f th tw mn cmplmntd ch thr. Fr thugh Trtsky ws th suprm rgnsr f th nsurrctn, t ws Lnn, mr thn ny thr ndvdul, wh hd stld th Blshvks, nd wn thm fr th szur f pwr.

t th ll-Russ Cngrss f Svts, whch mt fr th frst tm n 26 ctbr, th Blshvks hd lmst 400 f th 650 dlgts, nd th supprt f dzns f Lft Sclst Rvlutnrs. ftr prlngd vtn, Lnn ddrssd th cngrss smply: W shll nw prcd t cnstruct th sclst rdr.

Th Blshvk Trdtn

TH SCLST rdr culd nt b bult vrnght, but frm th bgnnng th Blshvks md grt strds twrds thr dclrd gl. Dcrs wr pssd by th scr: t c-rdnt nd strngthn wrkrs cntrl thrugh lctd cmmtts; t blsh scrt dplmcy nd t cll n wrkrs brd t dmnd just pc; t blsh prvt wnrshp n lnd nd cnfsct ll stts wthut cmpnstn; t prclm th rght f ll th ntns f Russ t ndpndnc f thy dsrd t; t stblsh th frdm t prcts ny, r n, rlgn; t ntrduc th frdm f dvrc. Ths nd scrs f thr dcrs purd frm th nw Cuncl f Ppls Cmmssrs whch th Cngrss f Svts hd lctd.

Yt dcrs wr nt nugh: s Lnn rgud shrtly ftr th nsurrctn:

Sclsm cnnt b dcrd frm bv. ts sprt rjcts th mchncl, burucrtc pprch; lvng, crtv sclsm s th prduct f th msss thmslvs Dcrs r nstructns whch ll fr prctcl wrk n mss scl.

Sclsm d p nd d, fr Lnn, n th mss ctvty f wrkrs, wh wuld thmslvs put nt prctc th plcs f thr cntrlly lctd bds. Ths s wht wrkrs stt mns, nd ths s wht hppnd n Russ n th frst mnths f th rvlutn.

But vr th nxt 12 yrs, ths stt ws trnsfrmd nt ts ppst. Th dtld hstry cnnt b rltd hr, but th frmwrk f th prcss ws smpl nd cn b smply xplnd.

Wth th flur f rvlutnry sclst mvmnts lswhr, Russ ws sltd n th wrld. Tht wrld nw mpsd n svt ruld Russ sm f th hrshst cndtns mgnbl. Th cuntry ws nvdd by th rms f 14 cptlst pwrs, whch bckd th Wht rctnry rms f th ld rdr. Th Russn wrkng lss fught ths cvl wr wth th utmst hrsm. Hundrds f thusnds fught n th Rd rmy. Hundrds f thusnds mr, strvng nd rvgd by pdmcs, strv t kp th fctrs run-lng. t ws wth ts lst rsrvs f strngth tht th wrkng clss rplld th mltry thrt.

Mnwhl n th lnd, th psnts, cnfnd s much by th lck f mchnry s by thr wn ndvdulsm, hd ptd t dvd th lrg stts nt smll plts, suffcnt fr th nds f ndvdul frmrs, yt ncpbl f prvdng fd fr th cts. T btn ths vtl surplus, th Blshvks wr frcd t cnclt th rchr psnts wh culd prvd t.

Ths tsk, plus th mmmth prblm f rgnsng n cnmy whch hd bn crppld by th cvl wr, clld nt bng grwng stt burucrcy. Sn ths burucrcy, tgthr wth th trdrs nd mngrs f ndustry, bgn t dvlp ntrsts f ts wn. Th dth f Lnn nd th pltcl dft f Trtsky smthd th pth f ths nw scl lyr. n 1929, undr th ldrshp f Stln, t bndnd ll rstrnt. n pursut f th gl f cnmc nd mltry cmpttn wth cptlsm lswhr n th wrld, t bgn th hdlng xpnsn f ndustry, bsd n th supr-xplttn f Russn wrkrs. Wrkrs rgnstns wr smshd: thusnds f wrkrs wr xcutd r dd n lbur cmps.

Ths systm f rbbry n th ntrsts f ccumultn dffrs n n ssntl wy frm prvt cptlsm, nd t shuld b undrstd s burucrtc st t c p t l sm. t ws nd s dmtrclly ppsd t th lvng crtv sclsm f Lnn: t s th xct ppst f wrkrs stt s h undrstd t nd st ut t buld t.

t th rt f th dft f th rvlutn n Russ, thrfr, ls th dsntgrtn f th clss whch crts, whch puts lf nt, th sclsm f th Blshvk trdtn. n undrstndng ths dft, t s trvl t clm tht th rgnstnl styl f th Blshvk Prty, r th psychlgy f ts ldrs, wr th crucl fctrs, s mny ppl d. n th lst nlyss, wht ws dcsv ws th ft f th wrkng clss tslf, n ntnl nd ntrntnl lvl.

Ths lst pnt s spclly mprtnt: fr wthut d frm th utsd, th Russn wrkng clss culd nt hp t rsst fr lng th cmbnd pwr f ths thr clsss whch utnumbrd t by frty r mr t n. Hlp dd nt cm. ftr th wr, th rvlutn n urp ws btn bck, n spt f th grwth, frm lmst nthng, f th Thrd ntrntnl.

Nthng whch hs hppnd snc cn rs th chvmnts f Blshvsm. t rmns th nly frc n hstry whch hs bn bl t ld th wrkng clss t stt pwr. t rmns th rchst surc f nsprtn vlbl t sclsts. Th Sclst Wrkrs Prty s prud t stnd n ts trdtn.

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