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: Marxism and womens movement

: Marxism and womens movement
:
: 00:52:05 28 2010
: 24 : 2 : 0 : 0 :    

Mrxsm nd Wmns mvmnt

(ssy)


Th purps f ths rtcl s t xmn th thry nd prctc f Mrxsm s t rlts t wmns lbrtn. n rspns t fmnst crtcsm, mny Mrxsts hv bn unncssrly dfnsv. n rlty, th rvlutnry Mrxst trdtn hs prud rcrd. Ths s vry clr whn w cmpr th pltcs nd ctvts f th frst-wv burgs fmnst mvmnts f th lt nntnth nd rly twntth cntury wth ths f thr Mrxst cntmprrs. ndd, mny mdm fmnsts wuld gr wth t lst sm Mrxst crtcsm f burgs fmnsm. Hwvr, ny thry whch ss gndr rthr thn clss dvsns s fundmntl ultmtly nds up wth th sm lmttns nd wknsss.

Th mn currnts wthn mdrn fmnsm burgs fmnsm s xmplfd by rgnstns lk th ustrln Wmns lctrl Lbby, sclst fmnsm, rdcl fmnsm nd sprtsm hv brdly smlr crtqu f Mrxst thry: tht Mrxsm, bcus t s sx-blnd[1] nd bsssd wth clss nd cnmc qustns, cnnt xpln th pprssn f wmn, r dl n ny stsfctry wy wth qustns f prsnl lf. vn sclst fmnsts, wh n vryng dgrs s clss s mprtnt, blv tht fmnst thry s ncssry bcus ptrrchy[2] xsts lngsd but sprtly frm cptlsm (r ny thr frm f clss scty). n fct, thy rgu, clss struggl ftn cnflcts wth th nds f wmn, s wrkng clss mn llgdly bnft drctly frm th pprssn f wmn.[3]

Th ndqucy f Mrxst thry, thy clm, s prvd by th hstrcl rcrd. Wmn n sclst cuntrs (r cuntrs tht untl rcntly clld thmslvs sclst) r bvusly nt lbrtd. ndd, thy ftn br burdn f pprssn grtr thn thr cuntrprts n th wst. Furthrmr, ml-dmntd Mrxst rgnstns, st nd wst, hv suppsdly nvr tkn th qustn f wmn srusly nugh.

cmmn sclst fmnst tttud s xprssd by Shl Rwbthm. Sh wrts f th Mrxst rthdxy f Stlns rul nd cmmnts:

My gnrtn nhrtd Mrxsm whch hd nly cntnud n th wstrn cptlst cuntrs s dfnsv bdy f rthdxy surrundd by prtctv wlls, ncrustd wth fr stff wth trrr, brttl wth bttrnss, chng wth dsllusnmnt.[4]

Sclst ltrntv hs n qurrl wth th sttmnt tht wmn wr nd r pprssd n cuntrs lk th frmr Svt Unn. ndd, ur wn ltrtur hs rptdly drwn ttntn t th phnmnn, s n mprtnt prt f ur rgumnt tht ths scts cnnt n ny wy b rgrdd s sclst.[5] Nr d w dsgr substntlly wth Rwbthms dscrptn f th Stlnsd Cmmunst Prts f th Wst. Ths s nt th plc t g nt dtld rgumnt but th clss ntur f scts lk th Svt Unn.[6] n brf, ths r burucrtc stt cptlst clss scts, nd snc thy r nt sclst, thy d nt prv nythng but Mrxsm r sclsm. ftr th Stlnst cuntr-rvlutn f th lt 1920s, th Cmmunst Prts n th wst ncrsngly lst ny clm t b th brrs f rvlutnry Mrxsm nd lrgly bcm tls f Svt frgn plcy (lthugh thr wr mny cmmttd nd ddctd ppl n thr rnks wh t sm lvl rtnd th Mrxst vsn f humn lbrtn).

Nthr th s-clld sclst cuntrs nr th wstrn Cmmunst Prts r usful gud t th Mrxst vw f wmns lbrtn. t s rthr th cs tht rvlutnry Mrxsm hs bn bndnd, nd ths hs ld t th dwngrdng f th qustn f wmns (nd ndd humn) lbrtn. Thr s drct rltnshp btwn dhrnc t gnunly rvlutnry Mrxst trdtn nd cmmtmnt t wmns lbrtn.

Hwvr, bcus mst fmnsts (nd ndd mst ppl) ccpt wthut qustn th sclst crdntls f stt cptlst cuntrs nd th rgnstns whch supprt thm, t s ncssry t rvw th gnss nd dvlpmnt f Mrxst thry n wmn nd xmn hw t hs frd n th hnds f vrus currnts wthn th sclst mvmnt. Th strtng pnt s th wrk f Mrx nd ngls thmslvs, nd n prtculr, ngls Th rgns f th Fmly, Prvt Prprty nd th Stt, whch prvds th thrtcl frmwrk. whl srs f qustns rltng t wmns pprssn hv rsn snc ngls tm‑prtculrly n rltn t sxulty nd th blty t cntrl frtlty. But Mrxsts tdy cn stll us ngls nlyss s bss t dl wth thm.

Mrx nd ngls n wmn

Mrx nd ngls wr nfluncd by th utpn sclsts wh prcdd thm. Thy ftn qutd Chrls Furrs thss lnkng scl prgrss wth dvncs n th cndtn f wmn,[7] nd wr fmlr wth th wrk f Rbrt wn nd Hnr d Snt-Smn n th qustns f wmns rghts nd sxul frdm.[8] n Th Cndtn f th Wrkng Clss n nglnd, ngls spnt lt f tm xmnng th ppllng xprnc f wrkng clss wmn nd th mpct f ndustrl cptlsm n thr hlth, th fmly nd th rltns btwn th sxs. H dd nt s ths s trvl ssus.

Frm hs bsrvtns, h drw cnclusns whch wr dvlpd mr fully n ltr wrks. mng th mst mprtnt f ths ws tht th wrkng clss fmly ws n th prcss f dsslutn. Ths turnd ut t b mstkn, but t ws nt n unrsnbl prdctn t th tm. H dd nt frs th cmng tgthr f tw fctrs whch wuld ld t th rcrtn f th wrkng clss fmly: th cptlst clsss lrm t th prspct f kllng ff th prltrt, nd ts cncrn t nsur stdy supply f rsnbly hlthy nd pprprtly sclsd wrkrs; nd th dsr f th wrkng clss tslf fr th fmly s rfug frm th msry f ndustrlstn. Nnthlss, ngls bsrvtns f th prltrn fmly wr xtrmly mprtnt n th ltr dvlpmnt f hs ds.

ngls furthr cncludd tht, dspt ll th hrrrs nvlvd, th mss ntry f wmn nt th wrkfrc ws hstrclly prgrssv nd ld th bss fr qulty btwn th sxs. Ths ws ltr splld ut mr fully by Mrx:

Hwvr trrbl nd dsgustng th dsslutn, undr th cptlst systm, f th ld fmly ts my ppr, nvrthlss, mdrn ndustry, by ssgnng s t ds n mprtnt prt n th prcss f prductn, utsd th dmstc sphr, t wmn, t yung prsns, nd t chldrn f bth sxs, crts nw cnmc fundtn fr hghr frm f th fmly nd f th rltns btwn th sxs.[9]

s prt f th wrkfrc, wmn hv scl pwr thy d nt pssss s wvs nd mthrs, nd cn tk n ctv prt n thr wn lbrtn nd tht f thr clss th tw g tgthr. Ths fcus n wmn s wrkrs, wth pwr, rthr thn s pssv vctms, s n f th ky dffrncs btwn th Mrxst nd th fmnst pprch, nd undrls ny gnunly rvlutnry pprch t th struggl fr lbrtn.

n Th Cmmunst Mnfst, Mrx nd ngls usd th phrs bltn f th fmly.[10] Thy rgud tht th fmly nly xstd n ts cmpltly dvlpd frm mng th burgs. blshng th fmly ws prt nd prcl f blshng prvt prprty, nd prcndtn fr ndng th sttus f wmn s mr nstrumnts f prductn. Thy lkd frwrd t th dstructn f cptlsm brngng wth t th bltn f th cmmunty f wmn sprngng frm tht systm, .. f prsttutn bth publc nd prvt. Thy dvctd th bltn f ll rghts t nhrtnc (n rlr vrsn tlkd f qul rght f nhrtnc fr lgtmt nd llgtmt chldrn);[11] th qul lblty f ll t lbur nd th fr ductn f chldrn n publc schls.

n Prncpls f Cmmunsm, ngls psd th qustn Wht nflunc wll th cmmunst rdr f scty hv n th fmly nd nswrd t s fllws:

t wll mk th rltn btwn th sxs purly prvt rltn whch cncrns nly th prsns nvlvd, nd n whch scty hs n cll t ntrfr. t s bl t d ths bcus t blshs prvt prprty nd ducts chldrn cmmunlly, thus dstryng th twn fundtn f hthrt xstng mrrg th dpndnc f th wf upn th husbnd nd f th chldrn upn th prnts.[12]

Ths wr xtrmly dvncd ds. Undrlyng thm ws vw f th fmly s scl nsttutn whch prptutd th pprssn f wmn nd rjctn f th ntn tht wmns mn rl shuld b tht f wf nd mthr. Cupld wth ths ws th undrstndng tht th mncptn f wmn dpndd n thr bng nvlvd n scl prductn.

Wthn th sclst nd wrkrs mvmnts, Mrx nd ngls ds wr cntrvrsl. Fllwrs f Prudhn n Frnc nd Lssll n Grmny[13] blvd tht wmn shuld nt b nvlvd n scl prductn, whr thy cmptd gnst mn, but shuld rmn n thr nturl sphr, th hm. Mrx nd ngls frquntly nggd n htd dbt n ths qustn. Thy rgud fr wmn t b rgnsd nd brught nt th wrkrs mvmnt. t ws Mrx wh nsstd tht n nglsh schltchr, Hrrt Lw, b ppntd t th Gnrl Cuncl f th Frst ntrntnl.[14] H ls prmtd th frmtn f wrkng wmns brnchs f th ntrntnl n rs whr thr wr hgh cncntrtns f wmn wrkrs.[15]

Th rgn f th fmly

Th publctn f ngls Th rgn f th Fmly, Prvt Prprty nd th Stt, whch md xtnsv us f Mrxs nts, ws lndmrk. Hr fr th frst tm ws thrugh mtrlst nlyss f wmns pprssn. ngls rgud tht t ws nt nturl r nvtbl phnmnn, but ws ssctd wth th dvlpmnt f clss scty. Th fmly (nd hnc rltns btwn th sxs) s nt nturl, unchngng nsttutn. Fmly frms hv vrd nrmusly thrughut hstry. Furthr, thr s lnk btwn fmly frms nd th wy prductn s rgnsd n dffrnt clss scts: chngs n prductn ld t chngs n th frm f th fmly.

ngls lctd th rgn f th pprssv fmly wth th bgnnngs f prvt prprty nd th dvsn f scty nt clsss. n pr-clss scts, thr hd bn sxul dvsn f lbur, but ths hd nt ld t th systmtc pprssn f wmn. Th bsnc f surplus nd th nd t survv mpsd crtn gltrnsm n ths scts, usully dscrbd s prmtv cmmunsm. Hwvr, nc wnrshp nd nhrtnc f prprty bcm n ssu, th prvusly xstng mthr rght (th trcng f dscnt thrugh th mthr rthr thn th fthr) hd t b, nd ws, vrthrwn. ngls clld ths th wrld hstrcl dft f th fml sx, whn th mn tk cmmnd n th hm ls; th wmn ws dgrdd nd rducd t srvtud; sh bcm th slv f hs lust nd mr nstrumnt fr th prductn f hs chldrn.[16]

Wth th rs f th fmly cm ls chng n th ntur f dmstc lbur. t ws n lngr scl functn, but prvt srvc, wth th wmn s dmstc slv, xcludd frm scl prductn, cnmclly dpndnt n th mn, nd cndmnd t mngmy. ngls wnt s fr s t sy tht, wthn th fmly, th mn rprsntd th burgs nd th wmn th prltrt. Ths ws n unfrtunt frmultn, mplyng tht mn wr th nmy. But th mn pnt ngls wnt n t mk ws tht th frst cndtn fr th lbrtn f th wf s t brng th whl fml sx bck nt publc ndustry, nd ths n turn dmnds tht th chrctrstc f th mngmus fmly s th cnmc unt f scty b blshd.[17]

ngls rgud tht th cmng scl rvlutn wuld dstry th cnmc fundtns f mngmy nd ts cmplmnt, prsttutn. Wth th sngl fmly n lngr th cnmc unt f scty, huswrk nd chldcr wuld b sclsd. Ths n turn wuld ld t sxul lbrtn fr wmn. ngls ws nt cmpltly fr f th prjudcs f hs tms; nr culd h frs th mpct f chp, sf cntrcptn nd brtn, stll lss th dvlpmnt f tchnqus such s n vtr frtlstn whch pn up th prspct f th cmplt sprtn f sx nd rprductn. H blvd tht sclsm wuld ld t th dvlpmnt f hghr frm f mngmy. But h ls md t clr tht ths culd nt b dfntly prdctd r prscrbd:

Wht w cn nw cnjctur but th wy n whch sxul rltns wll b rdrd ftr th mpndng vrthrw f cptlst prductn s mnly f ngtv chrctr, lmtd fr th mst prt t wht wll dsppr. But wht wll thr b nw? Tht wll b nswrd whn nw gnrtn hs grwn up: gnrtn f mn wh hv nvr knwn wht t s t buy wmns surrndr wth mny r ny thr scl nstrumnt f pwr; gnrtn f wmn wh hv nvr knwn wht t s t gv thmslvs t mn frm ny thr cnsdrtns thn rl lv r t rfus t gv thmslvs t thr lvr frm fr f th cnmc cnsquncs. Whn ths ppl r n th wrld, thy wll cr prcus lttl wht nybdy tdy thnks thy ught t d; thy wll mk thr wn prctc ndtht wll b th nd f t.[18]

ngls crtcs crrctly pnt ut tht sm f th nthrplgcl vdnc h usd hs bn rfutd by mr rcnt nvstgtn, but thy g n t rgu tht ths cmpltly dscrdts hs cnclusns. Th htd dbt vr nthrplgcl qustns[19] hs bscurd n mprtnt pnt: tht t ws Mrxst wh md th frst srus ttmpt t ffr scntfc xplntn f wmns pprssn, nd tht ll subsqunt ffrts t rgu n ltrntv hv t tk ccunt f ths smnl wrk. Th mprtnc f ngls bk s tht t lcts wmns pprssn n mtrl cndtns n clss scty, rthr thn n nturl lws, humn ntur r th ds n mns hds nd thrfr shws hw t gt rd f t. By chngng th mtrl cndtns, by gttng rd f clss dvsns nd xplttn, by dstryng th nsttutn f th fmly, wmn cn b lbrtd frm th pprssn f pst gs. nd cruclly, t gvs wmn thmslvs, s wrkrs, ldng rl n thr wn mncptn. t s nt smply mttr f wtng fr rvlutn t cm lng nd lbrt thm, thy r thmslvs n ntgrl prt f th struggl. vry smll vctry n th clss struggl s stp twrds lbrtn. Th struggl gnst pprssn nd xplttn r nsprbly bund up.

Bbl

Sm f ngls ds frmd th bss fr bk by ugust Bbl f th Grmn SPD (Scl Dmcrtc Prty), Wmn Undr Sclsm.[20] Ths ws th sngl mst ppulr publctn f th SPD, gng thrugh hundrds f dtns, nd bng wdly trnsltd. t ws nstrumntl n cnvrtng whl lyr f wmn t sclsm nd brngng thm nt pltcl lf. ccrdng t hstrn f th prd, Hld Ln: Fr th prltrn wmn wh ws ntllctully lv, Bbl ws lmst lwys th wy t Mrx.[21] vn tdy, t s sy t undrstnd hw nsprng wmn n th nntnth cntury wuld hv fund pssgs lk ths:

Th wmn f th futur scty s sclly nd cnmclly ndpndnt; sh s n lngr subjct t vn vstg f dmnn nd xplttn; sh s fr, th pr f mn, mstrss f hr lt. Hr ductn s th sm s tht f mn, wth such xcptns s th dffrnc f sx nd sxul functn dmnd Sh chss hr ccuptn n such flds s crrspnd wth hr wshs, nclntns nd nturl blts, nd sh wrks undr cndtns dntcl wth mns. vn f nggd s prctcl wrkng wmn n sm fld r thr, t thr tms f th dy sh my b ductr, tchr r nurs, t yt thrs sh my xrcs hrslf n rt r cultvt sm brnch f scnc, nd t yt thrs my b fllng sm dmnstrtv functn. Sh jns n studs, njymnts r scl ntrcurs wth thr hr sstrs r wth mn s sh my pls r ccsn my srv.

n th chc f lv, sh s, lk mn, fr nd unhmprd. Sh ws r s wd, nd chss th bnd frm n cnsdrtns thr thn hr wn nclntns. Ths bnd s prvt cntrct, clbrtd wthut th ntrvntn f ny functnry Th stsfctn f th sxul nstnct s s much prvt cncrn s th stsfctn f ny thr nturl nstnct. Nn s thrfr ccuntbl t thrs, nd n unslctd judg my ntrfr ll bshful prudry nd ffcttn f scrcy rgrdng nturl mttrs wll hv vnshd ll th crcumstncs nd cndtns whch untl thn cndmnd lrg numbrs f wmn t clbcy nd t prsttutn wll hv vnshd[22]

Frm tdys stndpnt, w cn crtcs crtn frmultns usd by bth Bbl nd ngls, nd thr tttud t sm qustns f sxulty. Fr xmpl, bth dspprvd prsnlly f sm sx rltns thugh thy wr ppsd t lgl snctns gnst hmsxulty. (Th Grmn SPD ws n fct th frst prty t cmpgn pnly fr th lglstn f ml hmsxulty, wth spch by Bbl n th Rchstg n 1898).[23] Bth tndd t dls htrsxul mngmy thugh wthut th dubl stndrd f n rul fr mn nd nthr fr wmn. But th sxul prjudcs f thr tm dd nt prvnt thm frm crtng thrtcl frmwrk n whch futur Mrxsts such s lxndr Kllnt culd buld.

nd vn wth thr lmttns by tdys stndrds, th ds put frwrd by Bbl nd ngls wr lght yrs n dvnc f nythng ls t th tm. Th frst-wv fmnsts f th lt nntnth nd rly twntth cntury by nd lrg dd nt dvct sxul frdm fr wmn, dd nt rgu th xstnc f fml sxulty qul t mns, dd nt chmpn hmsxul rghts nd dd nt cll fr th bltn f th fmly s cndtn f wmns lbrtn. ndd, n f thr mn crtcsms f Mrxsts ws tht thy dvctd fr lv!

n fmnst hstrn cmmnts tht th suffrgsts tndd t b Vctrn pruds wh wuld hv bn scndlsd by th currnt dmnds fr sxul lbrtn.[24] prtl xcptn ws th rdcl wng f th Grmn fmnst mvmnt, whch ws cls t th SPD. Th Lgu fr th Prtctn f Mthrhd nd Sxul Rfrms, ls knwn s th Nw Mrlsts, cmpgnd fr th sprd f cntrcptvs nd th rpl f brtn lws. But ths xpnnts f fr lv nd f cntrcptn wr gnrlly strcsd by th fmnst mvmnt n nglnd nd mrc.[25] Thy ls mt ppstn frm th cnsrvtv Lgu f Grmn Wmns ssctns, whch cmpgnd fr th vt, but fught gnst brtn nd cntrcptn. Mnstrm fmnsts usully dvctd clbcy fr sngl wmn nd bstnnc fr mrrd wmn wh wshd t vd prgnncy. Sxul rdcls wr mnrty n ths prd, but mr f thm wr t b fund n th rnks f th sclst mvmnt thn n fmnst mvmnts.

Nr wr th frst-wv fmnsts cncrnd wth mprvng th cnmc pstn f th vst mjrty f wmn, s s t mk thm cnmclly ndpndnt nd ncrs th pssblty f scl ndpndnc. Fr th mst prt, thy cnfnd thmslvs t gttn fr th vt nd wth vrus frms f lgl qulty, such s dvrc lw nd prprty nhrtnc. Whl sclsts supprt such rfrms, w d nt cnfus wnnng dmcrtc rghts wth lbrtn. Th mjr bnfcrs f ths rfrms wr th mddl clss wmn wh md up th bulk f th fmnst mvmnts. Ths s nt surprsng: th phlsphcl undrpnnng f frst-wv fmnsm ws nntnth cntury lbrlsm. Unlk Mrxsm, t md n clm t b thry f humn lbrtn. But vn n th lmtd r f dmcrtc rfrms ffctng wmn, t s ntrstng nd nlghtnng t cmpr th pstns tkn by th sclst mvmnt nd th burgs fmnsts.

Mrxsm, fmnsm nd th struggl fr rfrm

Th mjr qustn fr th burgs fmnst mvmnts n urp nd mrc ws fml suffrg. Mrxsts supprtd th rght f ll dult wmn t vt s strghtfrwrd dmcrtc dmnd thugh wthut ny llusns tht th vt culd fundmntlly chng th pstn f wmn. Ths ws vry dffrnt strtng pnt frm tht f th burgs wmns mvmnts, wh wntd vts fr wmn lng clss lns n th sm bss s mn (prprty qulfctns wr usully nvlvd). Clss ntrsts wr ftn usd s n rgumnt fr th rght f mddl nd uppr clss wmn t vt. hstrn f th suffrg mvmnt cmmnts n th mvmnt n th US n th 1890s:

Scl cndtns wr n flux n mrc. Th rpd ncrs n frgn mmgrtn nd th prtsts f th lbur mvmnts struck fr nt th hrts f th ngl-Sxn, Prtstnt mddl clsss. Th rc sucd scr, whch suggstd tht th lwr rdrs wr utbrdng thm, ddd t thr prn.

s mmbrs f ths grup, th suffrgsts shrd ths flngs f nscurty Thy n lngr dmndd bllt n th grunds f justc, but pntd ut tht nfrnchsd ngl-Sxn mddl clss wmn culd utvt th pupr nd th frgnr.[26]

Th Brtsh suffrgtts f th Wmns Scl nd Pltcl Unn suspndd thr cmpgn n 1914 nd thrw thr cnsdrbl nrgs nt supprtng th mprlst wr ffrt. Th rght t vt ws t b thr rwrd fr thr lylty t clss nd mpr. n bth th US nd ustrl, th Wmns Chrstn Tmprnc Unns frmd sgnfcnt cmpnnt f th suffrg mvmnts. Thy dvctd vts fr wmn s scl rfrm fr th prtctn f Hm, nd fr Purty.[27]

Wthn th sclst mvmnt, Mrxsts wr th mst cnsstnt supprtrs f wmns vtng rghts. Fr xmpl, th Grmn sclst mvmnt[28] ntlly ppsd vts fr wmn bcus f th dmnnc f th Lssllns, but th ffrts f Mrxsts lk Wlhlm Lbkncht nd Bbl vntully crrctd th pstn, nd n 1894, th SPD ntrducd bll fr wmns suffrg nt th Rchstg.

n 1906, th rfrmst ustrn SDP dspt th fct tht prty plcy clld fr fml suffrg rn cmpgn t xtnd suffrg nly t ll dult mls. Ths ld t mjr dbt t th frst ntrntnl sclst wmns cnfrnc, rgnsd by th Grmn Mrxst Clr Ztkn n Stuttgrt n 1907. Th ustrns wr bckd by dlgts frm Blgum, Brtn nd Frnc, wh rgud tht th dmnd fr rstrctd suffrg ws mr rlstc. Th ttck n thm ws ld by th rvlutnry Mrxsts, Ztkn nd lxndr Kllnt (Ths ws th cnfrnc tht stblshd Mrch 8 s ntrntnl Wmns Dy, gn n Ztkns nttv.)

Prtctv lgsltn fr wmn wrkrs ws cntrvrsl ssu, nd n n whch sclsts nd fmnsts dffrd shrply. t ws ppsd by th burgs fmnst mvmnt fr clr clss rsns. Usng clssc lbrl rgumnts, thy sd tht prtctv lgsltn ntrfr[d] wth wmns frdm nd hr qul rghts wth th ml.[29] ntrstngly, prtctv lgsltn ws ls ntlly ppsd by Ztkn, wh ws n gnrl rslut ppnnt f th burgs fmnsts. n ths ssu, t sms sh ws t sm xtnt nfluncd by thr ds, thugh frm dffrnt clss prspctv. Sh chngd hr pstn s t bcm clr tht t uphld n bstrct, frml qulty mnt n prctc th supr-xplttn f wmn.[30] t s tru tht prtctv lgsltn cn t tms dsdvntg wmn. But th Mrxsts n th SPD rgud tht ths clld fr th xtnsn f prtctv lws t mn rthr thn dnyng thm t wmn.

brtn nd cntrcptn r rltvly strghtfrwrd qustns tdy. Th d f th rght t chs hs rl mnng whn cntrcptn nd brtn r rltvly chp nd rdly vlbl, n th dvncd cuntrs t lst. f curs, struggls t dfnd nd xtnd rprductv rghts r stll ncssry, but th cncpt f wmns rght t cntrl hr bdy nd frtlty s nt s prblmtc s t ws n prvus tms, bcus th mtrl mns xst. n th lt nntnth nd rly twntth cnturs, hwvr, th d f brth cntrl ws ftn ssctd wth rctnry currnts such s Mlthusnsm nd ugncsm (th psud-scntfc prpsl t cnstruct suprr rc thrugh slctv brdng). t thrfr cqurd n xtrmly rcst nd nt-wrkng clss cntnt.

n thr dsr t strngthn th rc, th Mlthusns dvctd brth cntrl fr th wrkng clss nd ppsd t fr th mddl clss.

Thr ws strng supprt mng mny mddl clss rdcls nd burgs fmnsts fr ths ds, prtculrly fr lmtng th numbrs f th wrkng clss. Thr supprt hd nthng t d wth th rght f wmn t chs (snc f th Mlthusns hd thr wy, wrkrs wuldnt gt ny chc). t hd fr mr t d wth thr tttud t th wrkng clss, whch ws thr n f hstlty nd fr; r ptrnsng tttud tht gnrnt wrkrs hd t b gudd nd lkd ftr by thr nturl suprrs. Mr Stps, fr xmpl, st up th frst brth cntrl clnc n Brtn n 1921. Sh rgud tht such clncs wr ndd n cts bcus W hv bn brdng rvlutnrs.[31] t s hrdly surprsng tht th wrkrs mvmnt ws suspcus f ths wh dvctd brth cntrl.

Mrxsts such s Ztkn nd Lnn cndmnd lws gnst brtn nd cntrcptn, whch thy sw s dmcrtc rghts. Such lws, wrt Lnn, r nthng but th hypcrsy f th rulng clss. Ths lws d nt hl th ulcrs f cptlsm, thy mrly turn thm nt mlgnnt ulcrs tht r spclly pnful fr th pprssd msss.[32] But thy ttckd th Mlthusns nd ths n th lft wh sw brth cntrl s wy t rduc pvrty r ncrs th brgnng pwr f th wrkng clss by lmtng ts numbrs (r vn, n bzrr dbt wthn th SPD, s wy f dnyng th Ksr mltry frcs!) Thy rgud tht clss struggl, nd ultmtly rvlutn, ws th wy t rs lvng stndrds.

Mddl nd uppr clss rdcls st up clubs nd cmmtts t dscuss ssus such s sxul rltns nd brth cntrl. n xmpl ws th Lndn Mn nd Wmns Club, fundd n 1885 by Krl Prsn, sclst nd ugncst. numbr f prmnnt burgs fmnsts wr mmbrs, ncludng lv Schrnr nd nn Bsnt. lthugh th purps f th club ws t dscuss th rltnshps btwn th sxs frm th hstrcl nd scntfc s dstngushd frm th thlgcl stndpnt, lnr Mrx ws rfusd ntry bcus sh ws lvng n fr unn wth dwrd vlng. Th grup ws untd rund ssus such s dvrc lw rfrm nd ppstn t th sxst tttuds fcd by mddl clss wmn n th prfssns. But thy wr unbl t gr n pstn n brth cntrl. Sm wmn rgud tht t vulgrsd th mtns nd ld t mmrlty. Mst grd tht brth cntrl llwd mn mr cntrl vr wmns bds, bcus mn wr nturlly bsts f pry. Th mnrty wh rgud tht sx culd b mutully plsurbl wr ccusd f supprtng prsttutn!

By th rly 1920s, nws ws cmng thrugh but th dvncs n wmns sttus n Russ, nd ths crtd nw cntxt fr th dbt.

Cmmunst Prts supprtd th rght t brth cntrl s smpl dmcrtc rght. Hwvr, ugncst ds wr stll vry prvlnt. n Brtn, Stll Brwn trd t mrry th ds f Mrx, Mlthus nd fmnsm. (Sh ws smultnusly mmbr f th Mlthusn Lgu nd th Cmmunst Prty n th rly 1920s.) s n rdnt cmpgnr fr wmns rght t chs, sh rgud:

brtn must b th ky t nw wrld fr wmn, nt bulwrk fr thngs s thy r, cnmclly nr blgclly. brtn shuld nt b thr prqust f th lgl wf nly, nr mrly lst rmdy gnst llgtmcy. t shuld b vlbl fr ny wmn, wthut nslnt nqustns, nr runus fnncl chrgs, nr tngls f rd tp. Fr ur bds r ur wn.[33]

Sh rgud fr ccss t cntrcptn n th sm bss, nd ls chmpnd fml sxulty n trms smlr t ths f lxndr Kllnt. Hwvr, Brwn ccptd lt f th ds ssctd wth ugncs, mntnng tht lck f mltncy mng ll rcs ws du t nt-ntl crcumstncs Sh wntd slctv brth cntrl t prduc nd buld up rc fttd t crry ut Cmmunst ndFmnst dls.[34] Hr cntnud dhrnc t Mlthusn rgnstns nd ugncst ds n dubt plyd rl n dscrdtng hr thrws prgrssv ds n brth cntrl nd fml sxulty. Dspt th Cmmunst Prtys supprt fr brth cntrl, sh lft t n 1923. Sh ltr jnd th Lbur Prty, whch rfusd t tk pstn n cntrcptn nd brtn, nd spnt th rst f hr crr s sngl-ssu cmpgnr fr brtn lw rfrm. Th rgnstn sh st up n 1936, th brtn Lw Rfrm ssctn, dd nt s brtn s clss ssu, nd thrfr dd nt cmpgn fr fr brtn n dmnd. Rthr, th fcus ws n crss-clss llnc f ll wmn t wn rghts whch n rlty r nly dnd t wrkng clss wmn, snc brtn s nrly lwys vlbl t ths wh cn py nugh. Brwns cncssns t fmnsm ctully ld hr wy frm th fght fr th knd f rvlutnry chng ncssry t lbrt wmn.

S n ths mjr ssus ffctng wmn, lt ln qustns such s qul py, Mrxsts hd cnsstntly bttr rcrd thn fmnsts. s Bxr nd Qutrt nt, t ws th sclst mvmnt tht ffrd th strngst nd lngst-sustnd ssstnc t wmn skng rdrss f pst njurs nd frdm fr futur dvlpmnt.[35] Ultmtly, th burgs fmnsts wr ntrstd n frml, lgl qulty wth mn f thr wn clss nd rmvng th rstrctns n thr wn dvncmnt. Ths ncssrly mnt gnrng r ctvly ppsng th rghts nd nds f th mjrty f wmn, ths f th wrkng clss. Th lbrtn f wrkng clss wmn wuld nvlv dstryng th clss systm whch th burgs fmnsts wntd t b prt f. Crl Bcchs cmmnts n th US suffrgsts r gnrlly pplcbl t th frst-wv fmnsts:

Pltclly thy lgnd thmslvs wth th Prgrssv mvmnt, whch supprtd tmprnc, scl purty, chld wlfr, fctry lgsltn, muncpl nd ductnl rfrm, dsgnd t llvt th mst prssng prblms ccmpnyng ndustrlstn nd urbnstn nd n tht wy t prsrv scl pc nd th ssnc f th sttus qu. fw frgd n llnc wth wrkng clss wmn, but th vst mjrty sw n cmmn ntrst wth ths grup.[36]


Th rl Mrxst trdtn

Fmnst crtcsm f th Mrxst trdtn s msplcd n nthr sns. Wthn th sclst mvmnt, t hs bn th rvlutnry Mrxsts (ftn n mnrty n th mvmnt s whl) wh hv hd th bst pstns nd bn th mst cnsstnt fghtrs fr wmns rghts. Th hghpnts f th fght fr wmns lbrtn by sclst mvmnts wr th struggls f Grmn Scl Dmcrcy n th lt nntnth nd rly twntth cnturs nd th Russn Rvlutn f 1917. Mny f th dvncs md by nd fr wmn wr subsquntly dstryd, by rfrmsm nd Stlnsm rspctvly.

s utlnd rlr, n th rly dys f Grmn Scl Dmcrcy, bttr thrtcl struggls tk plc btwn supprtrs f Mrx nd Lssll vr fml lbur nd suffrg. Ths struggls wr vntully wn by th Mrxsts, nd th SPDs pstn n wmn ws nfluncd prmrly by Bbl nd ngls. Th SPD dvlpd cdr f tlntd nd rtcult wmn ldrs (ntbly Clr Ztkn, Rs Luxmburg nd Lus Ztz), wh wr mstly ssctd wth th lft-wng f th prty. Th SPD publshd grt dl f ltrtur n nd fr wmn, rgnsd wmn wrkrs nt unns wth phnmnl succss, cmpgnd succssfully gnst lws rstrctng thr pltcl ctvty,[37] rn Mrxst study grups fr thm nd s n.

But dspt th rlr dft f th Lssllns, undrlyng tnsns rmnd, nd ths ws t hv prfund mpct n th SPDs plcs n wmn. f ll th sclst prts n th Scnd ntrntnl, th Grmn SPD ws cnsdrd t b th bst xmpl f rthdx Mrxsm. Mrx nd ngls thmslvs hd bn mr clsly ssctd wth t thn wth ny thr ntnl rgnstn, thugh thr tttud hd ftn bn crtcl.[38] Mrxsts ncludng Lnn bfr 1914 gnrlly lkd t th SPD s th mdl f Mrxst prty, nd ts thrtcl ldr, Krl Kutsky, ws rvrd s th Pp f Mrxsm. Hwvr, whl th prty frmlly dhrd t rvlutnry Mrxsm, ts prctc bcm ncrsngly rfrmst. Th rfurt Prgrmm f 1891, wrttn by Kutsky, ttmptd t synthss th tw. But n rlty, t cmntd dvsn btwn th prtys mxmum prgrmm (whch tlkd but th ultmt gl f sclsm nd rvlutn) nd ts mnmum prgrmm (whch dlt wth th dy-t-dy rfrms tht prccupd th prty.)

Fr tm, th rfurt synthss hld. But th lt 1890s sw th mrgnc f nw rfrmst currnt rund durd Brnstn.[39] H clld fr n ccmmdtn t prgrssv burgs lmnts, ncludng ths n th burgs wmns mvmnt. Th lfts fght gnst rvsnsm wthn th prty ld by Rs Luxmburg n hr pmphlt Rfrm r Rvlutn ws nxtrcbly bund up wth fght t hld th ln n ssus ffctng wmn.

Snc 1891, Ztkn hd dtd D Glchht (qulty), n SPD mgzn md t dvncd wmn wrkrs, prty cdr nd Vrtrunsprsnn (spksprsns).[40] t cntnd mx f thrtcl rtcls nd mr prctcl nfrmtn ntndd t nfrm nd trn wmn ldrs n th wrkng clss nd th prty. vn bfr Brnstns ffnsv, thr wr rptd ttmpts, rsstd by Ztkn, t mk th mgzn mr ppulr. Ztkn mntnd tht th jb f D Glchht ws nt t wn vr th msss, but rthr t prvd n ductnl nd prmtnl nflunc wthn th mvmnt.[41]

Hwvr, s th rfrmsts bcm mr dmnnt, D Glchht grdully chngd. Frm 1905, supplmnts wr ddd fr huswvs, mthrs nd chldrn; th pltcl lvl ws lwrd nd dlutd; nd Ztkn ws frcd t nclud hushld tps nd rtcls but ckng nd fshn.

nthr sgnfcnt bttl nvlvd Ztkn nd Lly Brun. Bruns rvlt gnst hr rstcrtc bckgrund ntlly prplld hr nt th burgs fmnst mvmnt. Sh brk wth thm n 1896 t jn th SPD, nd n 1898 bcm n f Brnstns strngst supprtrs. Lk hm, sh dvctd n llnc wth burgs fmnst wmn. Hr 1901 pmphlt, Fml Lbur nd C-prtv Lvng, dvctd th stblshmnt f hushld c‑prtvs. Ztkn vgrusly ppsd th prpsl, dscrbng t n lttr t Kutsky s th ltst blssmng f utpnsm n ts mst dngrus, pprtunstc frm.[42] n Ztkns vw, ths ws burgs rfrm whch culd nly bnft mddl clss wmn wth scur ncms. Undrlyng Bruns prpsl ws th d tht sclsm culd b grdully rlsd wthn th cptlst systm. Ztkn furthr rgud tht mst wrkrs (ncludng wmn) przd th sngl-fmly stblshmnt, nd tht nly thrugh clss struggl, nd ultmtly wth rvlutnry chng, wuld thy bgn t chng thr ld thughts, hbts nd blfs. n th mntm, t ws wrng t mps wht w wuld tdy cll pr-fgurtv frms[43] f lvng n thm.

Ztkn, supprtd by Kutsky, succdd n scuttlng Bruns prpsl nd wknng hr nflunc. But th wr ws fr frm vr. Th grwng strngth f rfrmsm ncurgd rvsn f th Mrxst pstn n wmn. Rchstg dputy dmund Fschr wrt n rtcl clld Th Wmn Qustn n 1905, n whch h sd tht fml lbur ws unnturl, sclly unhlthy, nd cptlst vl.[44] H wnt n: Th s-clld mncptn f wmn gs gnst th ntur f wmn nd f mnknd s whl. t s unnturl, nd hnc mpssbl t chv nd th frst nd hghst gd n lf fr th wmn, burd dp n hr ntur, [s] t b gd mthr nd lv t duct hr chldrn.[45]

Th fnl vctry f rfrmsm cm wth th utbrk f Wrld Wr , whn mst f th SPD ldrs cptultd t ntnlsm nd supprtd th wr. Th frst t pps t wr Luxmburg nd Ztkn. Fr shrt tm, Ztkn usd D Glchht t gtt gnst th wr, but sh ws frcd t rsgn s dtr n 1915 nd ws xplld n 1917. Sh ltr jnd th Cmmunst Prty. D Glchht hd srry ft. t ncrsngly bcm fmly ppr nd pltcs vrtully dspprd frm ts pgs. n 1922 ts subttl ws chngd t Mgzn fr wmn nd grls f th wrkng ppl. (n Ztkns dy t hd bn Mgzn fr th ntrsts f wmn wrkrs.) Wth ts crcultn wll blw wht t hd bn wth Ztkn s dtr, D Glchht suspndd publctn shrtly ftr, r-mrgng n 1924 s D Frunwlt (Wmns Wrld). Thnssn cmmnts: S wll ws ts pltcl tndncy hddn bnth th supplmnt, dfyng strs, pttrns nd fshn llustrtn, tht n-n culd rghtly dscvr t nymr.[46]

ftr Ztkns dprtur, wmns wrk wthn th SPD ws tkn vr by rfrmsts lk Mr Juchcz, wh n th frst spch by wmn dputy t th Grmn Rchstg, nnuncd: Th Wmn Qustn n Grmny n lngr xsts n th ld sns f th trm; t hs bn slvd.[47] t th sm tm, th SPD, nw n gvrnmnt, dlt wth th mss unmplymnt tht fllwd dmblstn by dcrng tht wmn shuld b sckd. Th fllwng rdr f prrty ws ssgnd:

1. Wmn whs husbnds hd jb.

2. Sngl wmn nd grls.

3. Wmn nd grls wh hd nly 1-2 ppl t lk ftr.

4. ll thr wmn nd grls.[48]

Th SPD ws nw n xplctly rfrmst prty whch sw ts jb s th prsrvtn f th cptlst systm. ndd, ts frst tsk n gvrnmnt ws t put dwn th rvlutnry uphvls whch fllwd th wr, nd stbls Grmn scty ( tsk whch ncludd th murdr f Luxmburg nd Krl Lbkncht, ldrs f th nw Cmmunst Prty). t ws t pns t dstnc tslf frm ts mr lft-wng pst, ncludng th fght fr sxul qulty. n 1919, th SPD prty nwsppr nnuncd: Wth Mr Juchcz, w hv nw nd ttlly dffrnt knd f wmn, nd n fr frm subtl swp t Ztkn ddd: Gn s th r whn th ctvsts f th wmns mvmnt blvd tht thy hd t prv thr qulty by tkng n ml chrctrstcs.[49]

ncrsngly, th SPDs wmns wrk cncntrtd n scl wlfr, wth th mphss n wmn s wvs nd mthrs rthr thn s wrkrs. Juchcz dvtd mst f hr nrgs t buldng n rgnstn whch fcusd n th spcl nds f wrkng clss chldrn.

Thr ws smlr pttrn n thr urpn sclst r scl dmcrtc prts. Cmmntng n ths phnmnn, ndrsn nd Znssr nt tht wmn ssctd wth rght-wng prts gnrlly sw thmslvs s trdtnl wmn, nd thught t pprprt tht wmn dl nly wth scl wlfr ssus.[50] But thy r t smthng f lss t xpln why lft-wng wmn shuld ls rtrt nt scl wrk n ths prd. Fr Mrxsts, th xplntn s qut strghtfrwrd. Th cmbntn f Wrld Wr nd th Russn rvlutn hd prfund mpct n th rgnstns f th Scnd ntrntnl. Prvusly, thy hd cmbnd rfrmsts nd rvlutnrs n thr rnks, but nw thy hd t chs btwn rfrm nd rvlutn. Mst splt, wth th rvlutnrs sttng up Cmmunst Prts cnscusly mdlld n succssful rvlutnry prty, th Russn Blshvks. Th rfrmsts gnrl rtrt frm th ds f Mrxsm ncssrly ntld rtrt n th qustn f wmns lbrtn. t ws lft t th Grmn Cmmunst Prty t crry n th trdtn stblshd by ngls, Bbl nd Ztkn. nd n fct th Cmmunst Prty wnt much furthr, n prtculr n qustns f sxulty. Wlhlm Rch, wh ws mmbr f th Grmn Cmmunst Prty n th 1920s, hd xtrmly rdcl, f smwht flwd ds nd lrg fllwng, spclly mng yung ppl. Hs wrk ws dnuncd by bth th Nzs nd th Stlnsts, but njyd rvvl durng th sxul rvlutn f th 1960s nd 70s.

Fr lng tm, th Grmn SPD hd th bst rcrd n wmn, prcsly bcus t hd th strngst Mrxst currnt. Th cmprtvly pr rcrd f thr sclst prts rflctd th wknss r cmplt bsnc f gnunly rvlutnry Mrxst currnt wthn thm. Th full sgnfcnc f ths s pprnt whn w xmn th rcrd f th Blshvks.

Th Russn Rvlutn

Russn wmn md nrmus gns s rsult f th ctbr rvlutn: full suffrg, qul py, qul pprtunty n jbs nd ductn, fr brtn nd cntrcptn, sy cvl mrrg nd dvrc, bltn f lws gnst hmsxulty, dultry nd ncst, fr mtrnty hsptl cr nd mtrnty lv, nursng brks, rductn f th wrkng dy, nd prtctv lgsltn fr wmn wrkrs, wth wmn nspctrs t nfrc t. Mst f ths wr nctd by smpl dcr wthn yr f th rvlutn. Ths msurs, n bckwrd nd mpvrshd Russ, wr fr n dvnc f nythng tht xstd nywhr n th wrld t th tm. n ts ttlty, ths bdy f lgsltn stll surpsss nythng n th wrld tdy. t s hrdly th mrk f prty tht dd nt tk th qustn f wmns lbrtn srusly.

But mprssv s ll ths ws, th Blshvks rcgnsd tht such lws wr nwhr nr nugh t gurnt full lbrtn. Th bckwrd nd ntrnchd tttuds f cnturs culd nt b md t dsppr vrnght. t ws ncssry t crt nsttutns t rplc th functns f th fmly. s Kllnt put t, th sprtn f ktchn frm mrrg ws s mprtnt rfrm fr wmn s th sprtn f Church frm Stt mr gnrlly.[51] Lnn ws vn mr frthrght:

Ntwthstndng ll th lws mncptng wmn, sh cntnus t b dmstc slv, bcus ptty huswrk crushs, strngls, stultfs nd dgrds hr, chns hr t th ktchn nd th nursry, nd sh wsts hr lbur n brbrusly unprductv, ptty, nrv-rckng, stultfyng nd crushng drudgry. Th rl mncptn f wmn, rl cmmunsm, wll bgn nly whr nd whn n ll-ut struggl bgns gnst ths ptty huskpng, r rthr, whn ts whlsl trnsfrmtn nt lrg-scl sclst cnmy bgns.[52]

S prgrm ws bgun t stblsh mtrnty nd nursng hms, crchs, lundrs, mndng cntrs, cmmunl husng nd rsturnts. Th scp f ths prgrm ws brthtkng, but ts chvmnt ws unfrtuntly lmtd by th wknss f n cnmy rvgd by Wrld Wr 1 nd th cvl wr. (Fmnsts lk mmln Pnkhurst, wh supprtd mprlst ntrvntn t crush th rvlutn, thus cntrbutd t hldng bck rfrms tht wuld hv bnftd wmn.)

Th Blshvks wr ls cncrnd t brng wmn nt ldng rls n pltcl lf, s thy stblshd spcl schls nd prgrmms f prctcl nd pltcl trnng fr thm. Ntng tht wmn ftn vtd fr mn t rprsnt thm, th Blshvks clld n th svts nd thr bds t prcts srt f pstv dscrmntn, nd t lct wmn dlgts nd ffcls whrvr pssbl. n 1919, th Zhntdl ws st up t vrs nd ld ths wrk. Ths ws spcl sctn f th Cntrl Cmmtt scrtrt, hdd frst by nss rmnd nd ftr hr dth n 1920 by lxndr Kllnt. Lnn hd lwys ppsd sprt prty rgnstns fr wmn, rgung:

W drv ur rgnstnl ds frm ur dlgcl cncptns. W wnt n sprt rgnstns f Cmmunst wmn! Sh wh s Cmmunst blngs s mmbr f th Prty just s h wh s Cmmunst. Thy hv th sm rghts nd duts.[53]

Ths hs ftn bn ntrprtd s dwngrdng f th qustn f wmns lbrtn, but ths s nt th cs. t s n fct n rgumnt gnst th ghttstn f wmns wrk, whch shuld b th rspnsblty f th whl rgnstn, nd nt just n xtr burdn fr ts wmn mmbrs. Mr rcnt xprnc cnfrms Lnns pstn. Hwvr, t tms spcl msurs my b ndd, s Lnn xplnd:

Th Prty must hv rgns wrkng grups, cmmssns, cmmtts, sctns r whtvr ls thy my b clld wth th spcfc purps f rusng th brd msss f wmn Ths nturlly rqurs tht w crry n systmtc wrk mng th wmn. W must tch th wknd wmn, wn thm vr fr th prltrn clss struggl nd qup thm fr t. Whn sy ths hv n mnd nt nly prltrn wmn, whthr thy wrk n th mlls r ck th fmly ml [but ls] th psnt wmn nd th wmn f th vrus sctns f th lwr mddl clss. Thy, t r vctms f cptlsm W must hv ur wn grups t wrk mng thm. spcl mthds f gttn, nd spcl frms f rgnstn. Ths s nt burgs fmnsm, t s prctcl rvlutnry xpdncy W cnnt xrcs th dcttrshp f th prltrt wthut hvng mllns f wmn n ur sd. Nr cn w ngg n cmmunst cnstructn wthut thm. W must fnd wy t rch thm.[54]

Th Zhntdl ws thrfr nt sprt r utnmus wmns rgnstn. (n fct, mny prty mn wrkd fr t.) t ws drctly rspnsbl t th ldrshp f th prty, mns f mplmntng prty plcy. Lcl brnchs f th Zhntdl wr ttchd t prty cmmtts t ll lvls. Th Zhntdl prducd nwsppr clld Kmmunstk (Cmmunst Wmn), hlpd rgns th cmmunl ktchns, nursrs nd lundrs, nd stblshd mchnsms t nbl wmn t ply ldng rls n pltcl lf. Ths nvlvd ltrcy prgrms, trnng wmn n th pltcl nd dmnstrtv sklls ncssry t run fctrs, srv n th svts nd unns r s ffcls, nd rgulr dlgts ssmbls, whch by th md-twnts nvlvd vr hlf mlln wmn.

Nn f ths cm ut f th blu. Frm th bgnnng, th Russn Mrxsts (nd spclly th grup rund Lnn whch ltr bcm th Blshvks) hd pd cnsdrbl ttntn t th qustn f wmn. Thr rdng grups ncludd ngls nd Bbls bks s prt f th bsc ltrtur f Mrxsm, nd thr prgrm lwys ncludd scl nd cnmc dmnds md t mprvng th sttus f wmn. n th rly yrs f th twntth cntury, Lnn usd th ppr skr t rgns nd chr th Mrxsts n Russ. Thr pmphlts wr lwys ncludd wth th bundls f skr smuggld nt th cuntry Ndzhd Krupskys pmphlt Th Wmn Wrkr ws n f thm.

Lnns bk n th dvlpmnt f cptlsm n Russ, wrttn n th 1890s, dvtd cnsdrbl spc t n xmntn f th cndtns f wmn, nd hs study ld hm t cnstntly mphss th mprtnc f nvlvng nd rltng t wmn. t ws usully Lnn wh nsrtd r mprvd cluss n wmn n th prty prgrm, fr xmpl ncrsng th lngth f mtrnty lv, shrtnng th wrkng dy fr nursng mthrs nd prvdng thm wth fr mdcl trtmnt.[55] H ls nttd numbr f cngrsss spcfclly fr wmn. ddrssng th 1,147 dlgts t th Frst Cngrss f Wmn Wrkrs nd Psnts n 1918, Lnn md th fmus prnuncmnt: Rt ut ld hbts, vry ck must lrn t rul th stt.[56] (Th Russn wrd ck rfrs t wmn; mn wh ckd wr chfs.)

Kllnt ftn gts lt f th crdt fr th Blshvks wrk n wmn, but ths s t bst n-sdd. Fr strt, t vrlks th mny thr wmn n th Blshvk prty wh cntrbutd t th wrk mng wmn. t ls undrrts th nflunc f ldng mn n th prty n th qustn. Th mg f Kllnt bttlng ln gnst th ntrnchd sxsm f th prty mn s grssly xggrtd. nvtbly, sh dd ncuntr sm bckwrd tttuds, but th fct rmns tht sh ws lctd t th Cntrl Cmmtt f th Blshvk Prty yr ftr jnng n 1915, nd sh ws gvn pst s cbnt mnstr ftr th rvlutn th frst wmn n th wrld t chv such pstn. Kllnt hrslf pd prtculr trbut t Svrdlv, Trtsky nd bv ll Lnn, whs uthrty ws crucl n th frmtn f nd llctn f scrc rsurcs t th Zhntdl. t shuld b rmmbrd t tht th Blshvks wr dng spcl wrk mng wmn bfr Kllnt jnd thm, wth thr ppr Rbtnts (Wrkng Wmn). Krupsky, rmnd, K.N. Smlv, Klvd Nklvn nd nn Ulnv-lzrv wr mng th ldng Blshvk wmn nvlvd n ths wrk, but Lnn ws clsly ssctd wth t. ndd, th nttv fr sprt jurnl fr wmn cm frm Lnn, n 1913. (Russn wmn wrkrs hd bn rdclsd durng th 1905 rvlutn, nd hd bn n th frfrnt f mny struggls, dmndng mtrnty lv, nursrs n th fctrs nd n nd t sxul hrssmnt. Whn th clss struggl rvvd frm 1910 nwrds, wmn wr gn prmnnt. By 1913, th Blshvk ppr Prvd ws rcvng mr crrspndnc frm wrkng wmn thn t culd hndl, hnc Lnns suggstn t publsh Rbtnts.)

Th Blshvk gvrnmnt md trmndus strt n crtng th pltcl bss fr wmns lbrtn. Wht thy chvd n fw shrt yrs ws vndctn f ngls thry nd Mrxsm gnrlly. Thy dd nt nd sprt fmnst thry t ntrduc th mst swpng mprvmnts n wmns sttus n hstry; nr dd wmn nd n rgnstn sprt frm th prty t prss fr thr rghts. Th ld cm frm wthn th ldrshp f th Blshvk prty frm th wmn nd mn wh wr th mst dvncd nd cmmttd rvlutnry Mrxsts f thr dy. Thr chvmnts wr lmtd, nt by lck f fmnst thry r lck f cmmtmnt t wmns lbrtn, but by th pvrty nd bckwrdnss f th Russn cnmy. Gvn th dsprt cnmc cndtns tht prvld, t ws nt surprsng tht th Blshvks fll shrt f thr ms; nr tht mny wmn wr frcd by mtrl crcumstncs t clng t th scurty f th fmly.

Th rvlutn dftd

Th flur f rvlutns n th dvncd cuntrs sld th ft f th wrkrs stt nd f Russn wmn. n dsprt ttmpt t buy tm, th Nw cnmc Plcy ws ntrducd n 1921, nd ths bdly ffctd wmn, wh wr mnly unsklld wrkrs nd thrfr suffrd mst frm unmplymnt, dspt gvrnmnt ttmpts t prtct thm. By th nd f th 1920s, nw rulng clss hd rsn undr Stln nd cnsldtd frm f burucrtc stt cptlsm. t s frm ths pnt tht w s qulttv chng: th gns md by wmn strt t b rlld bck s mttr f dlbrt gvrnmnt plcy rthr thn undr th frc f crcumstncs. Th prrty f th nw rulng clss ws cptl ccumultn t ctch up wth th wst. Ths mnt mssv ndustrlstn nd th dvrsn f rsurcs wy frm cnsumptn twrds prductn. t ls mnt th supr-xplttn f th wrkng clss. Wmn wr brught bck nt th wrkfrc, but thy lst prtctv lgsltn, mchnsms such s pcwrk rts md t mpssbl fr thm t rn s much s mn, nd mtrnty bnfts wr slshd. Chldcr cntnud t xst, nt t lbrt wmn frm th fmly, but t fcltt thr xplttn. ndd, n ssntl prjct f th Stlnst cuntr-rvlutn ws th strngthnng f th fmly, frcng bck nt wmn th rspnsblty fr huswrk nd chldcr. Thr ws sustnd ttck n Kllnt೒s ds but sxul frdm, whch vntully ntmdtd hr nt slnc. Kllnt೒s dvncd ds hd ftn mt wth crtcsm wthn th prty, prtculrly frm ldr mmbrs, ncludng Lnn, whs tttud t sx ws undubtdly purtncl by tdys stndrds. But t s ncssry t drw dstnctn btwn th prsnl prjudcs f ndvduls nd prty plcy, whch ws unmbguusly fr sxul frdm. s th Blshvk Grgr Bkks wrt n 1923:

Th prsnt sxul lgsltn n th Svt Unn s th wrk f th ctbr rvlutn. Ths rvlutn s mprtnt nt nly s pltcl phnmnn whch scurs th pltcl rl f th wrkng clss. But ls fr th rvlutns whch vlvng frm t rch ut nt ll rs f lf [Svt lgsltn] dclrs th bslut nn-ntrfrnc f th stt nd scty nt sxul mttrs, s lng s nbdy s njurd nd n-ns ntrsts r ncrchd upn cncrnng hmsxulty, sdmy nd vrus thr frms f sxul grtfctn, whch r st dwn n urpn lgsltn s ffncs gnst mrlty Svt lgsltn trts ths xctly s s-clld nturl ntrcurs.[57]

Th prjct f rstrng th fmly mnt clmpng dwn n sxul frdm. Stlns rgm tghtnd up mrrg nd dvrc lws, r-ntrducd lmny nd lws gnst hmsxulty, nd bnnd brtn. Th nd fr lbur ld t n bscn cult f th fmly nd mthrhd, wth wmn bng rwrdd wth mdls fr brng lts f chldrn nd puntv txs fr sngl ppl nd smll fmls. Th Zhntdl ws dsbndd n 1932 nd wmn wr rmvd frm pstns n th Rd rmy nd ldng pstns n th prty. Stln rgrdd ntllctul wmn n th prty s hrrngs wth ds.[58]

Just s th rlr vctrs fr wmn wr nsprbly td up wth th vctry f th wrkng clss, s th dft f th wrkng clss ls mnt dft fr wmn. Th r-stblshmnt f cptlst rltns f prductn ld nxrbly t th strngthnng f th fmly nd th spcl pprssn f wmn.

Th Russn xprnc ws rflctd n th Cmmunst Prts utsd Russ. Th frst thr cngrsss f th Cmmunst ntrntnl dscussd qustns rltng t wmn nd mphssd th mprtnc f brngng thm nt th prts nd cmbtng prjudc n th prts thmslvs nd n th wrkng clss.[59] f w lk t th ustrln Cmmunst Prtys ppr, Wrkrs Wkly, r ts jurnl Th Cmmunst n th rly 1920s, w fnd rtcls dscussng th pstn f wmn n cptlst scty cmprd wth cmmunsm, rgung gnst ths wh ppsd th ntry f wmn nt ndustry, cmpgnng fr qul py nd cndmnng ths wh nly gv lp-srvc t sxul qulty.

Th CP fund n udnc nd rcrutd mng lft-wng fmnsts wh hd ppsd Wrld Wr . ustrln fmnsts hd splt vr th wr. Sm, lk thr cuntrprts n th Brtsh suffrgtt mvmnt, supprtd t nd hndd ut wht fthrs t cvln mn. Rs Sctt, Prsdnt f th Wmns Suffrg Lgu nd th Pc Scty f NSW, ws prmnnt pr-wr fmnst. thrs ppsd wr n gnrl, but rfusd t tk stnd n ths prtculr wr. But thrs jnd th Wmns Pc rmy, whch ppsd th wr nd, tk prt n th nt-cnscrptn cmpgn.[60] Mny f ths wmn wr wn vr t cmmunsm nd plyd sgnfcnt rl n th CP. rprt frm th Mlburn brnch n 1925 ntd tht th nly sctn wth ny fght n thm s th wmn. Thy bt th mn n Mlburn by mls.[61] n 1928, th CP st up Mltnt Wmns Grups whch publshd pmphlts such s Wmns Rd t Frdm nd mnthly ppr clld Wrkng Wmn. Th CP-ld Mnrty Mvmnt hd n ght-pnt wmns prgrmm nd hld numbr f wmns cnfrncs.

But by th md-1930s, th CP hd qut dffrnt fcus. Whl thy cntnud t d sm gd wrk, nd nvr dptd th cult f th fmly n ts grssst frm, Stlnst pltcs hd n mpct, prtculrly durng th prd f th Ppulr Frnts, whn Cmmunst Prts wr tryng t dmpn dwn clss dffrncs. Wrkng Wmn bcm Wmn Tdy nd mdlld tslf n mnstrm wmns mgzns, cmplt wth fshn dvrtsmnts nd hushld hnts. fw yrs rlr, th ppr hd rfusd t publsh such thngs, xplnng:

Th Wrkng Wmn xsts fr th purps f hlpng ll wrkng wmn t s th ncssty t fght fr th mprvmnt f thr cndtns nt t hlp th bss t furthr lwr thr stndrds nd ncrs hs prfts. Th wrkrs hv lwys bn frcd t cnms but thr s n nd fr thm t d t vluntrly nd tk prd n t.[62]

Th trumph f Stlnsm n th lft ws lmst ttl. Cmmunst Prts rund th wrld bcm ssntlly gnts f th burucrtc stt cptlst rulng clss n Russ, thr plcs n vry qustn dcttd frm Mscw. Th fght fr wmns lbrtn hd n plc n th Stlnst schm f thngs: vrythng hd t b subrdntd t th dfnc f th Svt Unn. Durng Wrld Wr , th CP jnd th mplyrs n ppsng py strks by wmn bcus thy undrmnd th wr ffrt. t Mlburn muntns fctry, th CP unn scrtry xhrtd th undrpd nd ngry wmn t rmmbr th bys n th trnchs. Th wmn shutd n rply: W knw ll but ur bys n th trnchs thyr ur husbnds nd sns.[63] Dfyng thr unn ldrs, th wmn struck nd wn thr dmnds.

Stlnsm burd th Mrxst trdtn fr dcds. Trtsky nd hs tny grups f supprtrs struggld t kp lv th ds f rvlutnry Mrxsm, but ftr Trtskys dth n 1940, th mvmnt h lft bhnd ncrsngly lst ts wy. sltd nd mrgnlsd, th Trtskysts wr prssurd by Stlnsm n th n hnd nd th mssv shft t th rght whch ccmpnd th pst-wr bm n th thr. Mst ndd up ccmmdtng t n r th thr, r dgnrtng nt sctrn rrlvncy.

Dspt ll ths dstrtns, hwvr, thr rmnd crtn lgcy n th lft f fghtng fr wmns rghts. Thr wr n substntl wmns mvmnts fr whl prd, yt wmn cntnud t fght vr ssus such s qul py nd brtn, nd ths cmpgns wr ftn ld by sclsts nsd nd utsd th Cmmunst Prts nd th unns.

Th Stlnst mnlth bgn t dsntgrt n th lt 1960s. Th vrtul rbrth f th rvlutnry lft ntrsctd wth rs f nw mvmnts, ncludng th wmns lbrtn mvmnt. But th rvlutnry grups wr t smll nd pltclly dsrntd t rpdly r-stblsh th crdblty f gnun Mrxsm. Smtms thy wr sctrn twrds th nw mvmnts, t thr tms thy md t mny cncssns t thm. t hs tkn lng prcss f clrfctn nd dbt t rclm th Mrxst trdtn wth rgrd t wmns lbrtn nd mk t fully rlvnt t tdys struggls, nd th dbt s cntnung. But w cn b cnfdnt tdy tht ths trdtn s th nly frm bss n whch t mp ut strtgy fr th lbrtn f wmn, nd f humnty.


Nts


[1] Ths trm s usd fr xmpl by Hd Hrtmnn, n hr rtcl Th Unhppy Mrrg f Mrxsm nd fmnsm: Twrds Mr Prgrssv Unn, n Wmn nd Rvlutn: Dscussn f th Unhppy Mrrg f Mrxsm nd Fmnsm, Lyd Srgnt, d. Bstn, Suth nd Prss, 1981. Fr summry f fmnst crtqus f Mrxst thry, s ls Rsmry Tng, Fmnst Thught: Cmprhnsv ntrductn, Unwn Hymn, Lndn 1989, chptrs 2 nd 6.

[2] ccptnc f sm vrnt f ptrrchy thry s cmmn t nrly ll ths wh cll thmslvs fmnsts. vn ths sclst fmnsts wh r uncmfrtbl wth sm spcts f ptrrchy thry gnrlly mntn tht Mrxsm ds nt dqutly dl wth wmns pprssn. Fr Mrxst crtqu f ptrrchy thry, s Lndsy Grmn, Thrs f Ptrrchy n ntrntnl Sclsm (hrftr SJ) scnd srs, n.12; Chrs Hrmn, Wmns Lbrtn nd Rvlutnry Sclsm n SJ scnd srs n.23; Tny Clff, Clss Struggl nd Wmns Lbrtn: 1640 t th Prsnt Dy, Bkmrks, Lndn 1987; nd Lndsy Grmn, Sx, Clss nd Sclsm, Bkmrks, Lndn 1989.

[3] Th dmnnc f fmnst thnkng n ths ssu s llustrtd by th dbt wthn th ntrntnl Sclst tndncy. S rtcls by Jhn Mlynux, Shl McGrgr nd Lndsy Grmn n SJ scnd srs, ns.25, 30 nd 32.

[4] Shl Rwbthm, n hr ntrductn t Wmns Cnscusnss, Mns Wrld, Pngun, 1981, p.x.

[5] S fr xmpl Chn Rsnbrg, Wmn nd Prstrk, Bkmrks, Lndn, 1989.

[6] S Tny Clff, Stt Cptlsm n Russ, Bkmrks, Lndn, 1988; r fr brf summry f th rgumnt, Ptr Bnns, Tny Clff nd Chrs Hrmn, Russ: Frm Wrkrs Stt t Stt Cptlsm, Bkmrks, Lndn 1987.

[7] Th dvlpmnt f gvn hstrcl pch s bst f ll dfnd by th rltn btwn th prgrss f wmn nd frdm th dgr f fmnn mncptn s nturl msur f th gnrl mncptn. Furr s ctd by Mrx, qutd n Btrc Frnswrth, Blshvsm, Th Wmn Qustn nd lksndr Kllnt೔ n Sclst Wmn: urpn Sclst Fmnsm n th 19th nd rly 20th Cnturs. Mrlyn J. Bxr nd Jn H. Qutrt ds. lsvr, Nw Yrk, 1978.

[8] Fr summry, s Bnn S. ndrsn nd Judth P. Znssr, Hstry f Thr wn: Wmn n urp frm Prhstry t th Prsnt, Vl. , Pngun, Lndn. 1988, pp.375-381.

[9] Krl Mrx, Cptl Vl. , ntrntnl Publshrs, Nw Yrk 1967, pp.489-490.

[10] Krl Mrx nd Frdrch ngls, Th Cmmunst Mnfst, Prgrss Publshrs, Mscw, 197 1, p.55ff.

[11] Frdrch ngls, Prncpls f Cmmunsm, ppndx t Th Cmmunst Mnfst, p.90.

[12] bd, pp.93-94.

[13] n Prudhn, s Mrlyn J. Bxr, Sclsm Fcs Fmnsm: Th Flur f Synthss n Frnc, 1879-1914 n Bxr nd Qutrt, p.77; n Lssll, s Wrnr Thnssn, Th mncptn f Wmn: Th Rs nd Dcln f th Wmns Mvmnt n Grmn Scl Dmcrcy 1863-1933, Plut Prss, Glsgw 1976, pp.16-17.

[14] ndrsn nd Znssr, p.373.

[15] Mrlyn. J. Bxr nd Jn H. Qutrt, n thr ntrductn t Sclst Wmn: urpn Sclst Fmnsm n th Nntnth nd rly Twntth Cnturs, p.9.

[16] Frdrch ngls, Th rgns f th Fmly, Prvt Prprty nd th Stt, ntrntnl Publshrs, Nw Yrk, 1975, pp.120-121.

[17] ngls, rgns , p.137-138.

[18] ngls, rgns , p.145.

[19] Fr summry f th dbt, s Chrs Hrmns lngthy nt 1 t hs rtcl Wmns Lbrtn nd Rvlutnry Sclsm n SJ, scnd srs, n.23, pp.37-40, nd lnr Burk Lccks ntrductn t ngls Th rgns f th Fmly, ntrntnl Publshrs, Nw Yrk 1975, pp.7-66.

[20] ugust Bbl, D Fru und dr Szlsmus, trnsltd by Dnl d Ln nd publshd n nglsh s Wmn Undr Sclsm, Schckn, Nw Yrk, 1971. t ws rgnlly publshd s Wmn n th Pst, Prsnt nd Futur n 1878, bfr th publctn f ngls rgns, but ws subsquntly rvsd t nclud sm f ngls mtrl nd rgumnts.

[21] Qutd n Thnnssn, p.37.

[22] Bbl, p.343-344.

[23] Clff, Clss Struggl nd Wmns Lbrtn. p.250.

[24] Crl Bcch, Frst-wv fmnsm: hstrys judgmnt n ustrln Wmn: Fmnst Prspctvs, Nrm Grv nd Ptrc Grmshw ds. xfrd Unvrsty Prss, Mlburn 1981, p.156. n survy f hstrns tttuds t th frst-wv fmnsts, Bcch dscusss th rvsnsts wh crtcs th suffrgsts fr th shllwnss f thr vsn nd th wy n whch thy llwd rc nd clss ntrsts t ntrfr wth thr ssssmnt f wmns prblms nd th nw rvsnsts wh dfnd th suffrgsts wth th clm tht t s ncssry t undrstnd th wmn wthn th cntxt f thr tm nd tht t s unfr t judg thm by tdys stndrds. Th tlrnc f th lttr grup s nt, hwvr, usully xtndd t Mrxsts.

[25] Rchrd vns, Th Fmnst Mvmnt n Grmny 1894-1944, qutd n Clff, Clss Struggl nd Wmns Lbrtn p.73.

[26] Crl Bcch, Frst-wv fmnsm: hstrys judgmnt, p.157.

[27] Ctd n Dryn Krus nd Chrls Swrwn, Fmnsm nd Pcfsm: Wmns Sphr n Pc nd Wr, n ustrln Wmn: Nw Fmnst Prspctvs, Nrm Grv nd ls Burns ds, xfrd Unvrsty Prss, Mlburn, 1986, p.47. Krus nd Swrwn nt tht th US WCTU hd 200,000 mmbrs by 1883, whn t frmlly ndrsd wmns suffrg. By 1892, th Vctrn WCTU hd 4,000 mmbrs n nrly 60 brnchs.

[28] Frdnnd Lsslls Gnrl Grmn Wrkrs Unn mrgd wth Bbl nd Wlhlm Lbknchts Scl Dmcrtc Wrkrs Prty n 1875 t frm th Sclst Wrkrs Prty f Grmny. t ws bnnd undr th nt-sclst lws f 1878 fr twlv yrs, r-mrgng s th Scl Dmcrtc Prty f Grmny (SPD) n 1890.

[29] Thnssn, p.50.

[30] Fr Ztkns tttud t th fmnsts, s Clff, Clss Struggl nd Wmns Lbrtn pp.72-74; nd Jn H. Qutrt, Unqul Prtnrs n n Unsy llnc: Wmn nd th Wrkng Clss n mprl Grmny n Bxr nd Qutrt, p.116. Fr n ccunt f th dbt wthn th SPD, s Thnssn, pp.39-42.

[31] Qutd n Jul Wtrsn, Th Pltcs f brtn, n Sclst Wrkr Rvw, n.105, Jnury 1988, p.16.

[32] V.. Lnn, Th Wrkng Clss nd Nmlthusnsm n Prvd, n. 137, Jun 16, 1913. Qutd n Lnn, n th mncptn f Wmn, Prgrss Publshrs, Mscw 1977, p.32.

[33] F.W. Stll Brwn, Th Rght t brtn rprntd n Shl Rwbthm, Nw Wrld fr Wmn, p.114.

[34] Rwbthm, Nw Wrld fr Wmn, p.28.

[35] Bxr nd Qutrt, ntrductn t Sclst Wmn, p.2.

[36] Crl Bcch, Frst-wv fmnsm: hstrys judgmnt, pp.157-158.

[37] Th Cmbntn Lws, whch frbd wmn frm jnng pltcl rgnstns, wr blshd n 1908. Thnssn, p.49.

[38] S fr xmpl Mrxs 1875 Crtqu f th Gth Prgrmm, n ttck n th rsdul Lsslln ds n th SPD.

[39] S Crl Schrsk, Grmn Scl Dmcrcy, 1905-1917: Th Dvlpmnt f th Grt Schsm, Hrvrd Unvrsty Prss, Cmbrdg (Mss.), 1983, chptr 1. S n prtculr pp.16-20 fr summry f Brnstns rvsnsm.

[40] Th systm f Vrtrunsprsnn ws mns by whch th SPD crcumvntd t sm xtnt th Cmbntn Lws. lthugh wmn culd nt jn pltcl rgnstns, ndvduls wr nt bnnd frm pltcl ctvty. Th ntwrk f wmn Vrtrunsprsnn plyd lrg rl n th ductn nd rgnstn f wmn. Thnssn, pp.48-49.

[41] Thnssn, p.49.

[42] Qutrt, Unqul Prtnrs, p. 130.

[43] Tht s, rgnstns r nsttutns whch pr-fgur sclsm, th d tht w cn crt smll slnds f sclsm wthn cptlst wrld. Ths ws n f th mjr ds n ppulr fmnst ttck n Mrxsm nd Mrxst rgnstns n th lt 1970s, Bynd th Frgmnts by Shl Rwbthm, Lynn Sgl nd Hlry Wnwrght, Plut Prss, Lndn, 1979.

[44] Th rtcl pprd n th Szlstsch Mntshft, whr ppl wh hld vws tht culd b brdly trmd rvsnst ... culd publsh thr pnns wthut hndrnc. Thnssn, p.98.

[45] Qutrt, Unqul Prtnrs, p.133.

[46] Thnssn, p.120.

[47] Mr Juchcz n hr frst spch n th Rchstg, 1919, qutd n ndrsn nd Znssr, p.397.

[48] Thnssn, p.91.

[49] Qutd n ndrsn nd Znssr, p.398.

[50] ndrsn nd Znssr, p.399.

[51] Qutd n Clff, Clss Struggl nd Wmn s Lbrtn , p.140.

[52] Lnn, Grt Bgnnng n n th mncptn f Wmn, pp.65-66.

[53] Qutd by Clr Ztkn n My Rcllctns f Lnn,ppndx t Lnn, n th mncptn f Wmn , p.110.

[54] Ztkn, My Rcllctns f Lnn, pp.110-111.

[55] S Mtrls rltng t th Rvsn f th Prty Prgrmm n Lnn, n th mncptn f Wmn, pp.49-53.

[56] Qutd n ndrsn nd Znssr, p.299.

[57] Qutd n Jhn Lurtsn nd Dvd Thrsd, Th rly Hmsxul Rghts Mvmnt: 1864-1935, Tms Chng Prss, Nw Yrk 1974, p.64.

[58] Btrc Frnswrth, Blshvsm, th Wmn Qustn nd lksndr Kllnt೔, p.204.

[59] S Duncn Hlls, Th Cmntrn, Bkmrks, Lndn 1985, pp.51-53.

[60] S Krus nd Swrwn, Fmnsm nd Pcfsm: Wmns Sphr n Pc nd Wr.

[61] Qutd n Tm ΒLncln, nt th Mnstrm: Th Dcln f ustrln Cmmunsm, Stnd Wttl Prss, Sydny 1985, p.46.

[62] Qutd n ΒLncln, nt th Mnstrm , p.47.

[63] Qutd n Jny Stn, Wmn n th Mtl Trds, Frnt Ln (ntrntnl Sclsts) n.5, Mlburn, Dcmbr, 1976.

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