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: History of Homeschooling in USA

: History of Homeschooling in USA
:
: 11:53:43 22 2010
: 17 : 2 : 0 : 0 :    

History of Hmschlng in USA

(ssy)

Whl t's dffcult t gt xct fgurs n th numbr f chldrn ffclly rgstrd s hmschlrs n th U. S., t's stmtd tht but 2% f th ppultn - rund 700,000 t 900,000 chldrn [1] - r lrnng t hm wth thr fmls nstd f nrlld n th publc schl systm. Ths stmts my fll fr shrt f th ctul numbr f hm ductd chldrn, snc mny fmls us th srvcs f "umbrll schls," whch wuld rsult n thr chldrn bng cuntd mng prvt schlrs, nd sm smply dn't rgstr wth thr cunts t ll. n thng tht s clr mng bth xprts nd th gnrl publc s tht hmschlng cntnus t grw n ppulrty nd ccptnc, vn thugh t rmns s mtnlly chrgd n ssu s vr.

Hwvr, s th trnd twrds hm ductn hs grwn snc t's ncptn n th rly 1970s, (Bn Frnkln nd thr vnrbl frfthrs ncssrly schld t hm ntwthstndng), t's lbrl fundtns hv bcm burd undr n vlnch f cnsrvtv rhtrc tht cn mk rl undrstndng f ths ductnl phnmnn lusv t bst, nd crt n hstrcl fcd f msnfrmtn t wrst.

t th hrt f th cmmrcl prlfrtn f hmschlng rsurcs such s currculum, txt bk nd scnc qupmnt vndrs r vrwhlmngly rlgusly cnsrvtv cmpns such s Gd's Wrld Bks, bk nd Lfpc. Th mst vsbl nd utspkn f cntmprry hmschlng dvcts s th Hm Schl Lgl Dfns ssctn (HSLD), stunchly cnsrvtv cllctn f lgl gls wh hld t s thr mssn (whn prprly rtnd), "t prsrv nd dvnc th fundmntl, Gd-gvn, cnsttutnl rght f prnts nd thrs lglly rspnsbl fr thr chldrn t drct thr ductn..." rlyng n "tw fundmntl frdms-prntl rghts nd rlgus frdm." Rlgus cnsrvtvs rutnly clm hmschlng s thr wn, pntng ncrsngly t th "fur pllrs f hmschlng," th dubtful ttl f fur rltvly wll knwn, lrgly cnsrvtv nd HSLD ssctd fgurs wh hv smhw cm t tk crdt fr th mdrn hmschlng mvmnt.

n th prvctv rtcl, "Wh Stl Hmschlng? [2] " wrtr nd mgzn publshr Chryl Lndsy Slhff dscrbs th prcss by whch th rgnl grssrts rfrm mvmnt f hm ductn hs bn grdully subsumd by th rlgus rght. Th cntmprry "rlgus" bnt f hm ductn cn b trcd t th suddn grwth f cnsrvtv Chrstn hmschl rgnztns btwn 1983 nd 1985, nts Slhff.

"Ths nw Chrstn rgnztns hd fcus whch dvrgd mrkdly frm th fcus f mst f th hmschlng rgnztns nd ldrs whch prcdd thm. Thy ftn mphszd th rghts nd blgtns f prnts, s ppsd t th ductn r gd f chldrn, th mprtnc f sprtn frm th "ungdly," nd th duty f prnts t cntrl thr chldrn nd t kp thm frm undsrbl cmpnns. Thy ftn urgd tht hmschlrs us nly Chrstn currculum nd vd ssctn wth nn-Chrstn hmschlrs.

"... Whl thy wr ggrssv n mrktng nd prmtng thr wn nd n nthr's publctns, smnrs nd srvcs ntnlly nd n th stt lvl, thy rrly, f vr, md mntn f lng tm hmschlng ldrs nd rgnztns whch hd prcdd thm, sm f whch wr Chrstn, but whch dd nt shr thr wn prspctvs r phlsphs. Bcus ths nw rgnztns wr Chrstn, thy ftn gnd ccss t churchs nd church mmbrs by prsntng Chrstn cnfrncs nd smnrs whch wr dvrtsd by lcl churchs, nd thy thn prsntd hmschlng s nw Chrstn ptn fr Chrstn fmls wthut mkng mntn f th wrk f nn-Chrstn hmschlng pnrs."

Mst ntbly, Slhff lmnts, "... n cntrst t th grssrts supprt grups f prs nd quls whch chrctrzd hmschlng ffrts n th lt '70s nd rly '80s, tdy n lmst vry stt nd vry cunty nd cty w hv xclusv, hrrchcl hmschlng grups n whch mmbrshp s strctly cntrlld, wth hmschlng tslf ftn hld hstg t grup dfntns."

Slhff knws whrf sh spks. n th rly 1990s, sh bcm th mdrn dy quvlnt f Hstr Prnn, mrkd fr shm nd rprf bcus f hr ntrrcl mrrg, fmly dscrd nd thr prvt ssus. Nt nly ws Slhff cnfrntd by th smll Clvnstc church n Tcm, W sh ttndd, but hr ppulr mgzn, Gntl Sprt, ws trgtd by ntnl cnsrvtv hm schl ldrs wh, sh sd, turnd hr lf upsd-dwn, thrtnng hr wth fnncl, sprtul nd mtnl run.

Slhff, n n pphynmnl dprtur frm hr wn cnsrvtv rts, dug n fr th fght nd tk svrl f th bg-nm Chrstn hmschl fgurs t curt, ncludng th publshrs f th cnsrvtv mgzn Th Tchng Hm[3] , wll-knwn Chrstn hmschl wrtr Mry Prd nd Chrstn Hm ductrs f h. Prd, th hmschl grup nd tw thrs nmd n th sut sttld ut f curt. unnmus jury vrdct n fvr f Slhff fund tht Th Tchng Hm hd llglly rstrnd trd, n vltn f th Shrmn nttrust ct. Th jury fgurd dmgs t $435,000, whch r utmtclly trpld n nttrust suts, brngng th fnl munt t whch Slhff ws nttld t mr thn $1.3 mlln.

n n ntrvw Slhff ltr gv t Hln Hgnr, publshr f th sculr nd mr lbrl hmschlng trd jurnl, Hm ductn Mgzn[4] , Hgnr cmmntd n th lck f dscussn n th ntnl hmschl cmmunty but ths prcdnt sttng cs nd trl. Dspt cvrg f th cs n Ntnl Publc Rd, Slhff grd th slnc ws dp nd unsttlng.

"Th strngst phnmnn n my pnn s th slnc tht hs fllwd th jury vrdct nd th fnl rslutn f th cs. n 1994, thusnds f hmschlng fmls wr md wr f th crss n my prvt lf wthn fw shrt wks, yt th lwsut whch grw ut f ths vnts hs rmnd, by nd lrg, scrt."

Slhff cncluds, " blv tht n mny wys, ws thrt t mnln cnsrvtv Chrstn hmschlng ldrshp. ws dffrnt."

Yt hmschlng s frst nd frmst humnstc ndvr, cncvd f by rly ductn rfrmrs n th 1960s wh wr qut "dffrnt" frm tdy's chrsmtc hmschl clbrts, nd wth n mtv thr thn tht f dcntrlzd, unnsttutnlzd lrnng. t s, t ts surc nd s humnsm hs bn clld, n dlgy f mdrnty. n th rly dys f th hm ductn mvmnt, Chryl Slhff wuld nvr hv ndurd th strcsm nd dsruptn f hr prfctly nrml humn lf tht sh xprncd n 1994. ndd, th fcus f 1970s ductn rfrm ldrs ws nt rthdxy nd bdnc, but frdm f thught nd lrnng.

rly rfrmrs, prncplly vn llch wh ws n f hmschlng lgnd Jhn Hlt's mn nsprtns, rptdly rgud tht n tru ductn cn tk plc n n nvrnmnt f cnfrmty nd rgmnttn. T qut qul ductnl pprtunty wth blgtry schlng, sd llch, "s t cnfus slvtn wth th church. "[5]

"Th frst rtcl f bll f rghts fr mdrn, humnst scty wuld crrspnd t th Frst mndmnt t th U. S. Cnsttutn," llch dclrd, "'Th Stt shll mk n lw wth rspct t th stblshmnt f ductn. ' Thr shll b n rtul blgtry fr ll."

vn llch, multtlntd Vnns schlr wh rnd hs dctrt n hstry t th Unvrsty f Slzburg bfr cmng t th U. S. n 1951, hs run th gmut frm thlgy t pltcs. H ws vc-rctr t th Cthlc Unvrsty n Purt Rc, bcm c-fundr f th cntrvrsl Cntr fr ntrntnl Dcumnttn n Crnvc, Mxc, whr h drctd rsrch n "nsttutnl ltrntvs n Tchnlgcl Scty" nd ws wrtng nd tchng (t th Unvrsty f Brmn) wll up nt th 1990s. plymth wh spks sx lngugs nd wrts fluntly n thr, h hs bn clld "rdcl nrchst." Hs vws r dstnctly humnst, dvtd t th bttrmnt f humnty thrugh ndvdulzd frdm f lrnng

t ws llch's bk, "Dschlng Scty," tht vrtully ld th grundwrk fr hmschlng n mrc.

n ths cllctn f ssys, llch st frth th prms tht "th nsttutnlztn f vlus lds nvtbly t physcl pllutn, scl plrztn nd psychlgcl mptnc: thr dmnsns n prcss f glbl dgrdtn nd mdrnzd msry."

Hwvr grnd th mrcn vsn fr "ductn fr ll," nd hwvr nbl th cntmprry ductnl bttl cry, "Lv n chld bhnd!" llch pntd ut n hs frst ssy n th bk, Why W Must Dsstblsh Schl, tht "th mr xstnc f schl dscurgs nd dsbls th pr frm tkng cntrl f thr wn lrnng.

ll vr th wrld, th schl hs n nt-ductnl ffct n scty: schl s rcgnzd s th nsttutn tht spclzs n ductn. Th flurs f schl r tkn by mst ppl s prf tht ductn s vry cstly, vry cmplx, lwys rcn nd frquntly lmst mpssbl tsk."

Publc schls ls plrz scty, llch mntnd, by crtng srt f ntrntnl cst systm, whr "ductnl dgnty s dtrmnd by th vrg yrs f schlng f ts ctzns, rtng tht s clsly rltd t th pr cpt grss ntnl prduct, nd much mr pnful."

llch's cdmc vsn clld fr "sklls cntrs" whr ndvduls culd g t lrn frm thrs wh shrd thr wn sklls nd tlnts n th cmmunty. Ths, h sys, wll rsult n rl lrnng - th usful cqustn f nw sklls r nsghts - s ppsd t prmtnl ductn, whch s dpndnt upn pnns frmd by thrs f th studnt's blts.

But t ws sttmnts lk ths tht cught t th mgntn nd ntrst f thr rly ductn rfrmrs nd hlpd turn sghts twrd hmschlng s vbl ptn:

"Mst lrnng hppns csully," llch wrt. "nd vn mst ntntnl lrnng s nt th rsult f prgrmmd nstructn. Nrml chldrn lrn thr frst lngug csully, lthugh fstr f thr prnts py ttntn t thm." Thr s sm nd fr drll nd pntd nstructn, llch grd, but t hd t b blncd by ntrst nd fcus.

"Th dschlng f scty mpls rcgntn f th tw fcd ntur f lrnng. n nsstnc n skll drll ln culd b dsstr; qul mphss must b plcd n thr knds f lrnng. But f schls r th wrng plcs fr lrnng skll, thy r vn wrs plcs fr gttng n ductn. Schl ds bth tsks bdly, prtly bcus t ds nt dstngush btwn thm. Schl s nffcnt n skll nstructn spclly bcus t s currculr. n mst schls prgrm whch s mnt t mprv n skll s chnd lwys t nthr rrlvnt tsk. Hstry s td t dvncmnt n mth nd clss ttndnc t th rght t us th plygrund."

thr rfrmrs tk up th cry. n tw bks, Cmpulsry Msductn" nd "Grwng Up bsurd,[6] wrttn t rund th sm tm s llch's wrk, uthr nd pltcl thrst Pul Gdmn, pntd ut tht publc ductn ws wst f yuth. ductn, h sd, shuld b cmmunty ffrt nd nt n nsttutnl n.

Jhn Hlt, lmst unvrslly cclmd s n f hmschlngs mst nfluntl nd wll-rgrdd fundrs, tk ths thnkng vn furthr. H spk wth vn llch t lngth but hs thrs nd ws prtculrly ntrgud wth llch's cnvctn tht schls plrzd scts. rgnlly, Hlts ntrsts ly n pur publc ductn rfrm, nd h clld fr nw wys f lkng t lrnng nd ductn. By 1972, hwvr, n hs bk "Frdm nd Bynd,"[7] Hlt hd dcdd hs ntl thught f brngng grtr frdm nt th clssrm nvrnmnt ws nt th nswr t mrc's grwng ductnl lls.

"Ppl, vn chldrn, r ductd much mr by th whl scty rund thm nd th gnrl qulty f lf n t thn thy r by wht hppns n schls. Th drm f mny schl ppl, tht schls cn b plcs whr vrtu s prsrvd nd pssd n n wrld thrws mpty f t, nw sms t m sd nd dngrus llusn. t mght hv wrkd n th Mddl gs; t cn't wrk n wrld f crs, jts, TV, nd th mss md..."

By 1977, Hlt ws wn vr t th d f hm ductn. n ugust f tht yr, h publshd th frst ssu f Grwng Wthut Schlng (GWS) [8] , cnsdrd th wrld's frst hmschlng mgzn. Lk llch, Hlt flt strngly tht "crtfctn" dd nt qul blty t tch. H flt tht ny ntrstd dult culd tch ny ntrstd chld.

"Trnd tchrs, h wrt, "r nt trnd n tchng, but n clssrm mngmnt, . ., n cntrllng, mnpultng, msurng, nd clssfyng lrg numbrs f chldrn. Ths my b usful sklls fr schls, r ppl wrkng n schls. But thy hv nthng whtvr t d wth tchng - hlpng thrs t lrn thngs."

H furthr dvlpd hs ds nt th cncpt f "unschlng," by whch h mnt tht lrnng t hm shuld nt b cnsdrd mrly duplctn f th publc schl nvrnmnt t hm, whch th phrs "hmschlng" smd t cnjur. Hlt flt tht "lrnng by lvng" prvdd th bst ductn.

n hs bk," Tch Yur wn,[9] " Hlt mntnd, "Wht s mst mprtnt nd vlubl but th hm s bs fr chldrn's grwth nt th wrld s nt tht t s bttr schl thn th schls but tht t sn't schl t ll. t s nt n rtfcl plc, st up t mk `lrnng' hppn nd n whch nthng xcpt `lrnng' vr hppns. t s nturl, rgnc, cntrl, fundmntl humn nsttutn; n mght sly nd rghtly sy th fundtn f ll thr humn nsttutns."

lthugh Jhn Hlt dd n 1985, t g f 62, hs unschlng mvmnt rmns n f th lrgst f th hmschlng vnus n th cuntry, wth vr 2000 mmbrs, nd Grwng Wthut Schlng cntnud t b n f th mst ppulr hmschlng prdcls n xstnc untl t csd publctn n 2001.

Wth th hllmrk thught f "lrnng s lvng," Hlt nd thr ductn rfrm lumnrs chngd th mphss frm vrhulng th publc ductn prcss t smthng much mr ntmt, suggsts GWS wrtr Ptrck Frng. Thy wr tlkng, sd Frng, but chngng scl rltnshps btwn chldrn nd dults, wrk nd schl. [10] "

"Tchng nd lrnng utsd f schl ds nt hv t rsmbl tchng nd lrnng n schl. Culturl xprnc cn b th bss fr lrnng t hm nd n n's cmmunty thrughut n's cmpulsry schl yrs. Ppl cn succssfully d thngs dffrntly thn schls."

nd n mr cmpssnt, ntllctully mtur, humnstc mnnr, Frng fls. Phlsphr nd Unvrsty f Brdux prfssr Jcqus llul, sd Frng, hd t rght mr thn frty yrs g whn h sd " [publc] ductn n lngr hs humnst nd r ny vlu n tslf; t hs nly n gl, t crt tchncns."

Jhn Tylr Gtt, nthr ldng ductn rfrmr nd hmschl cn, hs smlr phlsphy. Gtt s frmr Nw Yrk tchr f th yr turnd nt-publc schlng. H rgulrly wrts nd lcturs n th shrtcmngs f cntmprry publc schl ductn. Whl Gtt's prtculr brnd f blfs smtms rng strng nd lttl n th zlus sd, nd hs wrtngs nd lcturs r hvy wth vtrlc hmls nd smthng f dsdn fr th rtnl (lthugh mst f hs rgumnts r qut rtnl), hs blf n humn dgnty nd ndpndnc s qully strng.

"t's tm t turn th schl busnss bck t ppl whr th Cnsttutn vstd t n th 10th mndmnt," h rgud t lctur n nd. [11] " "t's tm t lt ny smll grup tht wnts t try t shw wht t cn d n schlng. mlln fmly schls vr th pst dcd hv dmnstrtd tht uncrtfd prnts, mny f thm n mdst crcumstncs nd lckng th bnft f cllg thmslvs, cn pn bck th rs f th bst fctry mdl schls, publc r prvt."

"... ur prsnt systm f schlng lnts us s shrply frm ur nnr gnus, mst f us r brrd frm bng bl vr t hr ur cllng. Cllng n mst f us shrvls t fntsy nd dydrms s rmnnt f wht mght hv bn."

n ppr ttld, "Th Sx Lssn Schl Tchr,[12] " Gtt fctusly brks dwn th publc schl tchng prcss nt sx mnd-numbng stps tht h sys ncluds brnwshng chldrn t sty n thr clsss "whr thy blng," turnng thr ntrsts nd cursts n nd ff lk lght swtchs, surrndrng thr wll t hghr uthrty, lttng smn ls dtrmn wht thy wll study, lrnng t lt thrs b th judg f thr slf-wrth, nd bcmng nurd t lvng undr cnstnt bsrvtn.

Lk llch, Gtt blvs tht such cmpulsry, rgd ductn lds t crtn f cst systm nd " dhumnztn f ur lvs."

"Wthut fully ctv rl n cmmunty lf," h cncluds, " yu cnnt dvlp nt cmplt humn bng. rsttl tught tht. Surly h ws rght; lk rund yu r lk n th mrrr: tht s th dmnstrtn."

llch, Hlt, Gtt nd vn hmschl ppulrzrs Rymnd nd Drthy Mr - Svnth Dy dvntsts sgnfcnt n th rly dys f hm ductn wh blvd smply n gvng chldrn tm t lrn fr th smpl sk f lrnng wll - ll hd t th hrt f thr ductn rfrm phlsphs th vry humnst blf n mxmzng ndvdul lbrty "unfttrd by crd, uthrty r surc." t s t ths fscntng, thughtful nd thught prvkng ndvduls tht hmschlrs tdy shuld gv thr thnks nd whs wrk mdrn ductrs wuld d wll t rvst.


[1] Lns, Ptrc M. Hmschlrs: stmtng Numbrs nd Grwth, Ntnl nsttut n Studnt chvmnt, Currculum, nd ssssmnt ffc f ductnl Rsrch nd mprvmnt U.S. Dprtmnt f ductn Wb dtn, Sprng 1999 (prvusly rlsd s ppr n Sprng 1998)

[2] Slhff, Chryl. Wh Stl Hmschlng? Gntl Sprt Mgzn , pg 26, Vlum 6, Numbr 3, My 1999, vlbl nln t http://www.gntlsprt.cm/gs6n03/GS.htm

[3] Th Tchng Hm, Bx 20219, Prtlnd R 97294 ws fundd n 1980, wth ts sttd purps t prvd nfrmtn, nsprtn, nd supprt t Chrstn hm-schl fmls nd Chrstn hm-schl stt nd ntnl rgnztns. vlbl nln t http://www.tchnghm.cm

[4] Hgnr, Hln. n ntrvw wth Chryl Lndsy Slhff. Hm ductn Mgzn , Sptmbr-ctbr 1999, pg 32

[5] llch, vn. Dschlng Scty . Nw Yrk, Hrrw Bks, 1971 , ls nln t http://uchcm.btk.ru/duc/PUSTYN/lb/llch/dschl.ru.html nd vrus thr sts.

[6] Gdmn, Pul. Grwng Up bsurd . Rndm Hus , Nvmbr 1983

[7] Hlt, Jhn. Frdm nd Bynd . P Duttn, My 1972

[8] Publshd by Hlt sscts, 2380 Mss. v Sut 104, Cmbrdg M 02140. Lst ssu publshd Dcmbr 2001. Bck ssus vlbl t http://www.hltgws.cm

[9] Hlt, Jhn. Tch Yur wn . Dlcrt Prss, 1981

[10] Frng, Ptrck. Lrnng s Lvng: t s nt but Fttng n," Grwng Wthut Schlng, 1999,
2380 Mss. v Sut 104, Cmbrdg M 02140

[11] Jhn Tylr Gtt's ddrss t th "Sprtulty n ductn" cnfrnc, spnsrd by th Nrp nsttut, fcusng n Th Cngrgtnl Prncpl nd rgnl Sn Th Nglctd Gnus f mrc: Th Cngrgtnl Prncpl nd rgnl Sn (ductn nd th Wstrn Sprtul Trdtn)

[12] Gtt, Jhn Tylr. Th Sx Lssn Tchr, Whl rth Rvw Fll 1991, publshd by Pnt Fundtn, Sn Rfl, C

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, : History of Homeschooling in USA



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