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Курсовая работа: Equivalents of gerund are in Russian translation

Название: Equivalents of gerund are in Russian translation
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: курсовая работа Добавлен 02:53:12 09 ноября 2010 Похожие работы
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Министерство Образования и Науки Украины

Таврический Экологический Институт

Факультет иностранной филологии

Кафедра______________________

Специальность 7.030502-«Язык и литература»

Курсоваяработа

Тема : Equivalents of gerund are in Russian translation

Исполнитель: студентка 5 курса

Старцева Марина Александровна

Научный руководитель:

доцент Цвет Л.Я.

Симферополь, 2003


Contents

Introduction

Section I. General characteristics of the gerund

1.1 The double nature of the gerund

1.2 The tense distinctions of the gerund

1.3 The voice distinctions of the gerund

1.4 Predicative constructions with the gerund

Section II The use of the gerund

2.1 The use of the gerund

2.2 The function of the gerund in the sentence

Section III. The gerund and the other verbals

3.1 The gerund and the infinitive

3.2 The gerund and the participle

3.3 The gerund and the verbal noun

Section IV. Comparison of the English gerund and its equivalents in Russian

The conclusion

List of literature


INTRODUCTION

The aim of my paper is the analysis of the translation and the opportunity to transmit the meaning of the gerund in Russian. I have set this aim because of a superficial translation the reader cannot see what is written between the lines. The translator doesn’t always know grammar and grammar are left behind the limits of the translation.

When one compares an original text with the translation, one can see that some difficult places are omitted or changed. For example, if the noun expresses the subject, the translator can translate this noun with an adverb, because of it sounds better than if it were translated without an adverb (6, 31).

The theme of the course paper is analysis of Russian equivalents of the gerund. The main problem of this paper is to show how one can translate gerund in all situations, how to render a gerund by other means of the language, how gerundial constructions are used. In a complex clause one can omit the translation of a gerund because of it’s difficult to express the idea in the Russian language.

There aren’t any gerunds in the Russian language. There is only a verbal noun. The English gerund cannot be translated as a verbal noun. I’ll try to show this difficulty of translation in Russian.

I’ve chosen this theme, because rendering gerund in Russian is ambiguous and difficult for a student. I want to do my own contribution in the analysis of this problem.

My course paper consists of the introduction, the two chapters and the conclusion.


Section I. General characteristics of the gerund

Origin and Development. The gerund was originally a verbal noun in –ing (until about 1250 also with the form –ung).thus it differed from the present participle in meaning, which was originally an adjective and until about the fourteenth century had a different ending, namely, ende (or inde, ynde, ande), so that the two suffixes were farther apart in form and meaning than they are today. They have both in course of time acquired more verbal force, but the gerund is still a noun and the present participle is still an adjective. [22-101]

. In the combination possessive + gerund, as in I do not like his coming here so often-мнененравится, чтоончастоприходитсюда. The oblique case may be substituted for the possessive, so that the gerund becomes a present participle: I do not like him coming here so often. The difference — if any — appears to be that in the former construction the logical emphasis is on the possessive, in the latter on the verb. But there seems also to be a tendency to give up the latter construction altogether, as if it were a mere variation of I do not like him possessives: “in honors of its being Christmas day I …”-вчестьРождествая … “when metal came into use, men were able to make their knives much longer, without their being afraid of their breaking”-споявлениемметаллапоявиласьвозможностьизготовлятьболеедлинныеножи, небоясь, чтоониполомаются. In the last sentence they could be omitted but not changed into them.

So also the genitive in who told you of your wife's being there? May be made into the common case— of your wife being there. In such constructions as I cannot accept the notion of school-life affecting the poet-янемогупринятьпонятиеошкольнойжизни, котораявлияетнапоэта, to this extent the common case is preferred to the genitive(24-92).

"Ing" is used here as a comprehensive technical term for those English forms which from a syntactical point of view must be considered as two different things, a gerund and a participle ("first participle", generally called "present participle"). [23-129]

In order to understand the definition “gerund” we should know all its meanings and word-combinations.

The gerund developed from the verbal noun, which in course of time became verbalized, preserving at the same time its nominal character.

The gerund is formed by adding the inflection -ing to the stem of the verb and coincides in form with Participle I (15 – 170).

1.1 The double nature of the gerund

As a natural result of its origin and development the gerund has nominal and verbal properties. The nominal characteristics of the gerund are as follows:

1. The gerund can perform the function of the subject, an object and a predicative.

Theysaysmokingleadstomeditation. – К медитации они посоветовали использовать дымящий свинец.*

I like making people happy. – Ялюблюосчастливливатьлюдей.

He went away without saying a word. – Онушелнесказавнислова (1 – 222).

2. The gerund can be preceded by a proposition.

I’m very, very tired of rowing – Яочень, оченьусталагрести.

He’s fond of skating. – Онувлекаетсяконьками.

You can’t make an omelette without breaking eggs. – Тынеможешьсделатьомлетбезяиц.

I’m tired f hearing about that. – Яусталаэтослушать (5 – 137).

3. Like a noun the gerund can be modified by a noun in the Possessive Case or by a possessive pronoun.

“I wonder at Jolyon’s allowing this cugagement”, he said to aunt Ann. – «Меняудивляет, чтоДжолиoндопустилэтупомолвку», сказалонтетушкеЭнн.

Isthereanyobjectiontomyseeingher? – Кто-нибудь возражает против того, чтобы я повидался с ней? (7 – 259).

The verbal characteristics of the gerund are the same as those of the participle:

1) The gerund of transitive verbs can take a direct object.

I had now made a good progress in understanding and speaking their language. – Сейчасясделалхорошеепродвижениевпониманиииговоренииихязыка.

2) The gerund can be modified by an adverb.

She burst out crying bitterly. – Онагорькорасплакалась.

3) The gerund has tense distinctions; the gerund of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions. The forms of the gerund in modern English are as follows (2 – 624).

Active Passive
Indefinite writing being written
Perfect having written having been written

There is no gerund in the Russian language and the English gerund is rendered in Russian in different ways:

a) by a noun.

Dancing had not begun yet. – Танцыещененачались (10 – 232).

b) by an infinitive.

He had tea with Cipriano before leaving. – Передтем, какуйти, онавыпилачайс Kиприано.

It is no good hiding our heads under our wings. – Бесполезнопрятатьголовуподкрыло. * (Here and there the translation is mine)

c) by деепричастие.

And without waiting for her answer he turned and left us. – Инедожидаясьее, онповернулсяивышел.

On seeing Bella he stopped, beckoned her to him, and drew her arm through his. – УвидевБеллу, оностановился, подозвалеексебеивзялподруку (16 – 19).

d) by a subordinate clause.

He regretted now having come. – Теперьонсожалел, чтопришел.

It should be observed that though the active forms of the gerund may be rendered in different ways, the passive forms are nearly always rendered by a clause.

As she contemplated the wide windows and imposing signs, she became conscious of being gazed upon. – Когдаонарассматривалаширокиевитриныивнушительныевывески, онапочувствовала, чтонанеесмотрят.

After having been informed of the conference in my lady’s room,… he immediately decided on waiting to hear the news from Frizinghall. – Послетогокакемусообщилиосовещаниивкомнатемиледи,… онсразурешилподождать, чтобыузнатьновостиизФризингхолла (15, 171).

1.2 The tense distinctions of the gerund

The tense destinations of the gerund, like those of the participle, are not absolute but relative.

The Indefinite Gerund Active and Passive denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb it may refer to the present, past, or future.

He can swim for any number of hours without tiring. - Онможетплытьмногочасовподряд, неуставая.

She walked on without turning her head. – Онашла, неповорачиваяголовы.

Gwendolen will not rest without having the world at her feet. – Гвендоленнеуспокоится, покавесьмирнебудетуееног.

No one could pass in or out without being seen. – Никтонемогнивойтитак, чтобыегоневидели (12 – 105).

However, a prior action is not always expressed by a perfect Gerund; in some cases we find an Indefinite Gerund. This occurs after the verbs to remember, to excuse, to forgive, to thank and after the prepositions on (upon), after and without.

Idon’trememberhearingthelegendbefore. – Я не помню, что бы я раньше слышала о легенде.

Thank you for restraining me just now. – Благодарютебя, чтосдержалменясейчас.

On leaving the house we directed our steps to the nearest shade. – Покинувдом, мыосматривалиськближайшейтени.

After walking about ten yards, he found the hat among the leaves. – Пройдяоколодесятиярдов, онобнаружилшляпусредилистьев.

She passes through and disappears in the village without noticing the young lady. – Онапроходитмимоиисчезаетвдеревненезамечаяюнуюледи (14 – 210).

The Perfect Gerund may also be used after the above mentioned verbs and prepositions.

He did not remember having been in that room. – Оннепомнил, чтобыкогда-нибудьбылвэтойкомнате.

After having denied herself to everybody, Miss Rachel, to our astonishment, walked into the midst of us of her own accord. – ПослетогокакмиссРэчелотказаласьвидетькогобытонибыло, онакнашемуудивлению, вышлакнампосвоемусобственномужеланию.

They parted at Cohen’s door without having spoken to each other again. – ОнирассталисьудверидомаКоэна, несказавдругдругунислова (15, 173).

1.3 The voice distinctions of the gerund

The gerund of transitive verbs has special forms for the active and the passive voice.

He liked neither reading aloud nor being read aloud to. – Оннелюбилничитатьвслух, нислушатьчтение.

It’s to observed that after the verbs to want, to need, to deserve, to require and the adjective worth the gerund is used in the active form, though it is passive in meaning.

“The slums want attending to, no doubt”, he said. – «Безсомнениятрущобаминадозаняться», – сказалон.

He realized that his room needed painting. – Онпонял, чтоегокомнатунадопокрасить.

The child deserves praising. – Ребенокзаслуживаеттого, чтобыегопохвалили.

They were not worth saving. – Ихнестоилоспасать (4 – 66).

1.4 Predicative constructions with the gerund

Like all the verbals the gerund can form predicative constructions, i.e. constructions in which the verbal element expressed by the gerund is in predicate relation to the nominal element expressed by a noun or pronoun.

Like a verb, a gerund may have a subject, but, like earlier verbal nouns, its subject is in the genitive, here, however, only the old subjective genitive in -s, or instead of the genitive the person implied in a possessive adjective, my, his, etc., which were originally genitives of the personal pronouns and are still often used as such ; 'I am provoked at John's talking so rudely' (or 'at his talking so rudely').-Япротивтого,чтобыДжонтаксомнойгруборазговаривал. Many common substantive limiting adjectives, as this, these, those, any, several, all, two, three, etc., have no s-genitive. Here, of course, as the genitive is impossible, we have to use the accusative: 'Was it thou who didst tell the boy this foolishness of these being our arms?-Быллиэтоименноты, ктосказалмальчикуэтуглупость, чтоонвнашихруках'. 'Some families may possibly have moved away on account of the repeated failure of crops, but I do not know of any having done so.-Некоторыесемьивозможноуехалибыиз-запостоянныхнеурожаев, нояникогонезнаю, ктобытакпоступил. ' There are also nouns that have no genitive form. Here we must have recourse to the accusative: 'I am not surprised at young or old falling in love with her.' There is no hope of good coming from it.' 'There is no expectation of the French withdrawing their demands.'-Большенетсилждать, когдаФранцияпредоставитсвоитребования (22-102).

I don’t like your going off without any money. – Мнененравится, чтовыуходитебезденег.

Here the gerund going off is in predicate relation to the pronoun your, which denotes the doer of the action expressed by the gerund (14, 173).

The nominal element of the construction can be expressed in different ways.

1) If it denotes a living being it may be expressed:

a) by a noun in the genitive case or by a possessive pronoun.

His further consideration of the point was prevented by Richard’s coming back to us in an excited state. – Егодальнейшиеразмышлениябылипрерванытем, чтовернулсяРичардвчрезвычайновозбужденномсостоянии.

Doyoumindmysmoking? – Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы я курил?

b) by a noun in the common case.

I have a distinct recollection of Lady Chiltern always getting the good conduct prize! – Яотличнопомню, чтоледиГильтернвсегдаполучаланаградызапримерноеповедение.

NOTE. – Thus in modern English there are two parallel constructions or the type: Fancy David’s courting Emily! and Fancy David courting Emily! These two constrictions may be used in differently, but sometimes there is a slight difference in meaning in the first example the action (the verbal element of the construction) is emphasized, whereas in the second the does of the action (the nominal element of the construction) is emphasized (9, 89).

Occasionally examples are found where the nominal element of the construction is expressed by a pronoun is the objective case.

Ihopeyouwillforgivemedisturbingyou. – Надеюсь, что вы простите меня за то, что я вас побеспокоил.

There are cases when the nominal element of the construction, though denoting a living, cannot be expressed by a noun in the possessive case, but only by a noun in the common case, namely when it consists of two or more nouns or when it is a noun modified by an attribute in past-position.

I object to Marry and Jane going out on such a windy day. – Япротив, чтобыМэрииДжейнвышлинаулицувтакойхолод.

He felt no uneasiness now in the thought of the brother and sister being alone together. – Еготеперьнесмущаламысльотом, чтобратисестраосталисьвдвоем.

Didyoueverhearofamanofsenserejectingsuchanoffer? – Слышали ли вы когда-нибудь, чтобы разумный человек отказался от такого предложения? (15, 174).

2) If the nominal element of the construction denotes a lifeless thing, it is expressed by a noun in the common case (such nouns, as a rule, are not used in the genitive case) or by a possessive pronoun.

I said something about my clock being slow. – Ясказал, чтомоичасыотстают.

…Piggottspokeof… myroom, andofitsbeingreadyforme. – …Пеготт говорила… о моей комнате и о том, что она уже приготовлена для меня (3 – 475).

3) The nominal element of the construction can also be expressed by a pronoun which has no case distinctions, such as all, this, that, both, each, something.

I insist on both of them coming in time. – Ятребую, чтобыониобапришливовремя.

Again Michael … was conscious of something deep and private stirring within himself. – Михаилопятьпочувствовал, чтовегодушешевельнулосьчто-тоглубокоеизатаенное.

NOTE. – Some grammarians recognize the existence of two separate constructions: the gerundial construction (a construction whose nominal element is expressed by a noun in the genitive case or by a possessive pronoun) and a construction with a half gerund (a construction whose nominal element is expressed by a noun in the common case, a pronoun in the objective case, or a pronoun which has no case distinctions) (15, 175).

A general construction is nearly always rendered in Russian by a subordinate clause, generally introduced by то, что; тем, что; как, etc.

Hebeingaforeigner, anex-enemywasbadenough. – То, что он был иностранцем, бывший неприятель, было уже плохо.

Thedooropeninggentlyinterruptedherthoughtsatlast. – Ее мысли были наконец прерваны тем, что дверь тихонько открылась.

Ibegantopicturetomyself… mybeingfounddeadinadayortwo, undersomehedge. – Я начал представлять себе, как через день или два меня найдут мертвым под каким ни будь забором (13, 56).

Section II The use of the gerund

2.1 The use of the gerund

In modern English the gerund is widely used and often competes with the infinitive.

In the following case only the gerund is used.

1) With the verbs and verbal phrases: to avoid, to burst out, to deny, to enjoy, to excuse, to fancy (in imperative sentences as an exclamation of surprise), to finish, to forgive, to give up, to go on, to keep on, to leave off, to mind (in negative and interrogative sentences), to postpone, to put off, cannot help and some others (6, 256).

He avoided looking at Sabina. – ОнизбегалсмотретьнаСавину.

… She burst out crying. – … онарасплакалась.

She denied having been at the station that evening. – Онаотрицала, чтобылавтотвечернастанции.

Excusemyleavingyouinthedarkamoment. – Извините, что я на минуточку оставила вас в темноте.

Fancyfindingyouhereatsuchanhour! – Я даже представить себе не мог, что застану вас здесь в такое время!

Forgivemyspeakingplainly. – Простите, что я говорю так прямо.

WhenCommitteehadfinisheddecidingonitspolitics, hehadgonehome. – Когда комитет кончил разрабатывать свой план действий, он пошел домой.

Theywentontalking. – Они продолжали разговаривать.

The doctor keeps coming and having a look at me. – Докторпродолжаетнавещатьменяиосматривать.

It was quite rough, but I kept on rowing. – Озеробылонеспокойно, нояпродолжалгрести.

I have left off shooting. – Япересталохотиться.

Doyoumindmeaskingyouoneortwomorequestions? – Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы я задал вам еще один-два вопроса?

2) With the following verbs and verbal phrases used with a preposition: to accuse of, to agree to, to approve of, to complain of, to depend on, to feel like, to insist on, to look like, to object to, to persist in, to prevent from, to rely on, to speak of, to succeed in, to suspect of, to thank for, to think of, to give up, the idea of, to look forward to, not to like the idea of, to miss or the opportunity of and some others.

He was surprised at having been asked about it. – Онбылудивлен, когдаегоспросилиобэтом.

He is proud of having won the first place in the chess tournament. – Онгордится, чтозанялпервоеместовтурнирепошахматам.

We insisted on being informed by cable of the arrival of the ship. – Мынастаивали, чтобынаспроинформировалипокабелюоприбытиикорабля.

He objects to having to come here every day. – Онпротив, чтобыпринудительноприходитьсюдакаждыйдень (6, 28).

They accuse me of having dealt with the Germans. - Меняобвиняютвтом, чтояимелделоснемцами.

It was clear now … that Abraham never had agreed to their being married today. – Теперьбылоясно, чтоАвраамникогданесоглашалсянато, чтобыонипоженилисьсегодня.

You did not approve of my playing at roulette. – Вынеодобрялитого, чтояигралаврулетку.

All the happiness of my life depends on you loving me. – Всесчастьемоейжизнизависитоттого, полюбителивыменя.

I don’t feel like going out. – Мненехочетсявыходить.

I don’t want to bore you with all this, but I feel like talking. – Янехочунадоедатьвамвсемэтим, номнехочетсяпоговорить.

I insist on being treated with a certain consideration. – Янастаиваюнатом, чтобыкомнеотносилисьвнимательнее.

It looks like raining. – Похоже, чтобудетдождь.

I object to his having any acquaintance at all with me sister. – Япротивтого, чтобыонбылзнакомсмоейсестрой.

I rushed out to prevent her from seeing this dreadful sight. – Явыбежал, чтобынедатьейувидетьэтоужасноезрелище.

… you may rely on my setting matters right. – … выможетерассчитыватьнато, чтоявсеулажу.

My medical adviser succeeded in saving my life… – Моемуврачуудалосьспастимнежизнь…

Yoususpectmeofstealingyourdiamond. – Вы подозреваете меня в тои, что я украл ваш брильянт.

I resolved not to think of going abroad any more. – Ярешилбольшенедуматьопутешествиях.

Ireallythankyouheartilyfortalkingallthistrouble. – Я сердечно благодарен вам зато, что вы взяли на себя все эти заботы.

Sohereturnedhisstraitenedmeanstohispocket, andgaveuptheideaoftryingtobuytheboys. – Он снова избрал свое жалкое состояние в карман и отказался от намерения постараться подкупить мальчиков (15, 177).

3) With the following predicative word-groups (with or without a preposition): to be aware of, to be busy in, to be capable of, to be fond of, to be guilty of, to be indignant at, to be pleased (displeased) at, to be proud of, to be sure of, to be surprised (astonished) at, to be worth (while) and others.

Sir Pitt Crawly was not aware of Becky’s having married Radon. – СэрПиитКровлинезнал, чтоБекивышлазамужзаРадона.

I felt physically incapable of remaining still in any one place and morally incapable of speaking to any one human being. – Ячувствовал, чтофизическиневсостоянииоставатьсянаодномместеиморальноневсостоянииговоритьскембытонибыло.

I am very fond of being looked at. – Яоченьлюблю, когданаменясмотрят.

You are really guilty of having connived with a German officer to help his escape. – Выдействительновиновнывтом, чтоспособствовалипобегунемецкогоофицера.

Mr. Osborne was indignant at his son’s having disobeyed him. – МистерОсборнбылвнегодованииоттого, чтосынегоослушался.

… She was not pleased at my coming. – …онабыланедовольна, чтояпришел.

Miss Crawly was greatly displeased at Radon’s having married Becky. – МиссКровлибылаоченьнедовольна, чтоРадонженилсянаБеки.

… Nobody knows better than I do that she… is proud of being so pretty. – … ужятознаю: она… гордитсятем, чтоонатакаяхорошенькая.

Are you quite sure of those words referring to my mother? – Высовершенноуверены, чтоэтисловаотносятсякмоейматери?

The bridal party was worth seeing. – Свадьбустоилопосмотреть (15, 178 – 179).

2.2 The function of the gerund in the sentence

The gerund may be used in various syntactic functions. A single gerund occurs but seldom; in most cases we find a gerundial phrase or a gerundial construction.

1) The gerund as a subject.

Talkingmendsnoholes. – Разговоры не помогают в беде.

Waitingfortheprofessorwasalameexcusefordoingnothing. – То, что мы ждали профессора, было слабым оправданием тому, что мы ничего не делали.

My answering in the affirmative gave him great satisfaction. – То, чтояответилутвердительно, былоемуоченьприятно (1, 106).

The gerund used as a subject may follow the predicate; in these cases the sentence opens with the introductory it (which serves as an introductory subject) or with the construction there is.

It’s no use talking like that to me. – Бесполезноговоритьсомнойвтакомтоне.

There was no mistaking the expression on her face. – Выражениееелицанельзябылонепонять.

NOTE. – There is another view according to which it is the subject and the rest of the sentence is the predicate.

2) The as a predicative.

Theonlyremedyforsuchaheadacheasmineisgoingtobed. – Единственное средство от такой головной боли, как у меня, – это лечь спать.

3) The gerund as part of a compound verbal predicate.

- With verbs and verbal phrases denoting modality the gerund forms part of a compound verbal modal predicate.

We intend going to Switzerland and climbing Mount Blanc. – МыхотимпоехатьвШвейцариюиподнятьсянаМонблан.

Josephcouldnothelpadmiringtheman. – Джозеф не мог не восхищаться этим человеком.

- With verbs denoting the beginning, the duration or the end of an action, the gerund forms part of a compound verbal aspect predicate.

She began sobbing and weeping. – Онаначаларыдатьиныть.

The manager has finished dictating a letter to the secretary. – Менеджерзакончилдиктоватьписьмосекретарю.

I avoid speaking to him on this matter. – Яизбегаюразговариватьснимвтакойманере.

In the night it started raining. – Ночьюначалсядождь (7 – 257).

4) The gerund as an object.

The gerund may be used as a direct object and as a prepositional indirect object.

Isimplyloveriding. – Я просто обожаю кататься верхом.

Sheenjoyedsingingandplayingtohim. – Ей доставляло удовольствие петь и играть для него.

Thetimesweregoodforbuilding… - Время для постройки дома было самое подходящее.

Charlie did not succeed in talking things easily. – Чарлинеудавалосьсмотретьлегконавещи.

Predicative constructions with the gerund form a complex object as they consist of two distinct elements, nominal and verbal.

Perhapsyouwould’tmindRichard’scomingin? – Может быть, вы не будете возражать против того, чтобы вошел Ричард?

AuntAugustawon’tquiteapproveofyourbeinghere. – Тетя Августа будет не очень довольна тем, что вы здесь (15, 181 – 182).

5) The gerund as an attribute.

In this function the gerund is always preceded by a preposition.

There are different ways of solving this problem. – Существуютразныеспособырешенияэтойпроблемы.

We discussed different methods of teaching foreign languages. – Мыобсуждалиразныеметодыизученияиностранныхязыков.

He has no objection to being sent there. – Унегонетвозможностей, чтоеготудапослали (7, 254).

6) The gerund as an adverbial modifier.

In this function the gerund is always preceded by a preposition. It is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of time, manner, attendant circumstances, cause, condition, purpose and concession; the most common functions are those of adverbial modifiers of time, manner and attendant circumstances.

- As an adverbial modifier of time the gerund is preceded by the prepositions after, before, on, upon, in, or at.

After leaving her umbrella in the hall, she entered the living room. – Оставивзонтиквпередней, онавошлавгостиную.

He was to have three days at home before going back to farm. – Ондолженбылпробытьтриднядома, преждечемвозвратитьсянаферму.

Clare turned at hearing her footsteps… - Услышавеешаги, Клероглянулся.

NOTE. – In the function of an adverbial modifier of time gerund sometimes competes with the participle.

George, on hearing the story, grinned. – Джордж, услышавэтуисторию, усмехнулся.

The four girls, hearing him speak in the hall, rushed out of the library. – Всечетыредевочки, услышав, чтоонговоритвпередней, выбежалиизбиблиотеки.

After reaching the second landing… I heard a sound of quiet, and regular breathing on my left-hand side. – Дойдядовторойплощадилестницы, … яуслышалслевойстороныспокойноеировноедыхание.

Reaching the door of the room occupied by Cowperwood and Aileen, she tapped lightly. – Дойдядодверикомнаты, которуюзанималиКауперВудиЭллин, онатихонькопослушала.

- As an adverbial modifier of manner the gerund is used with the preposition by or in.

She startled her father by bursting into tears. – Онанапугаласвоегоотцатем, чторасплакалась.

The day was spent in packing. – Деньпрошелзаупаковкойвещей.

- As an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances the gerund is preceded by the preposition without.

She was not brilliant, not active, but rather peaceful and statuesque without knowing it. – Этобылаженщинанеблестящая, неэнергичная, нооченьспокойнаяивеличественная, саматогонезная.

- As an adverbial modifier of purpose, the gerund is chiefly used with the preposition for.

… one side of the gallery was used for dancing. - … однасторонагалереииспользоваласьдлятанцев.

- As an adverbial modifier of condition the gerund is preceded by the preposition without.

He has no right to come bothering you and papa without being invited. – Оннеимеетправаприходитьибеспокоитьвасиотца, еслиегонеприглашают.

- As an adverbial modifier of clause the gerund is used with the preposition for, for fear of, owing to.

I feel the better myself for having spent a good deal of time abroad. – Ячувствуюсебялучшеоттого, чтодолгопрожилзаграницей.

Idarednotattendthefuneralforfearofmakingafoolofmyself. – Я не смел, присутствовать на похоронах, так как боялся поставить себя в глупое положение.

- As an adverbial modifier of concession the gerund is preceded by the preposition in spite of.

In spite of being busy, he did all he could to help her. – Несмотряназанятость, онсделалвсе, чтобыпомочьей.

The above examples show that the gerund preceded by one and the some preposition may be used in different functions: with the preposition without, it may be perform the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances and of condition; with the preposition in, it may be perform the function of an adverbial modifier of time and of manner; with the preposition for, it may perform the function of an adverbial modifier of purpose or of cause.

NOTE. – The Russian не + деепричастие may correspond to the English without + Gerund or not + Participle. It usually corresponds to not + Participle if it’s used in the function of an adverbial modifier of cause.

НезнаяадресамиссБетти, Давиднемогейнаписать. – Not knowing Miss Betsey’s address, David could not write to her (CAUSE).

If нет + деепричастие is used in the function of adverbial modifiers of attendant circumstances and of condition, it generally corresponds to without + Gerund.

ДавидуехализЛондона, никомуничегонесказав. – David left London without telling anybody about it (ATTENDANT CIRCUMSTANCES) (15, 183 – 184).

Section III. The gerund and other verbals

3.1 The gerund and the infinitive

With a number of verbs and word-groups both the gerund and the infinitive may be used. The most important of them are: to be afraid, to begin, to cease, to continue, can (cannot) afford, to dread, to fear, to forget, to hate, to intend, to like (to dislike), to neglect, to prefer, to propose, to remember, to recollect, to start, to stop.

The young man began turning aver the pages of a book. – Молодойчеловекначалпереворачиватьстраницыкниги.

At length she began to speak softly. – Наконецонаначалаговоритьмягко.

She continued standing near the piano. – Онапродолжаластоятьупианино.

She continued to look at him… – Онапродолжаласмотретьнанего…

It is sometimes possible to find a reason for the use of a given form. With some verbs and word-groups, such as to be afraid, to forget, to hate, to like, to prefer the infinitive is mostly used with reference to a special occasion, the gerund being more appropriate to a general statement.

The child was afraid of remaining alone, but he was afraid of to remain along or such a stormy night. – Ребенокнебоялсяостатьсяодинвтакуюбурнуюночь.

Don’t forget shutting the windows when you leave home. – Незабывайзакрыватьокна, уходяиздому.

Idon’tlikeinterruptingpeople. – Я не люблю отрывать людей от дела.

Idon’tliketointerrupthim, heseemsverybusy. – Мне не хочется мешать ему, он, кажется, очень занят.

Iwasalwaysafraidlosinghisgoodwill. – Я всегда боялся потерять его расположение.

Gwenoldenansweredratherpettishly, andhermammawasafraidtosaymore. – Гвендолен ответила несколько раздраженно, и ее мыть побоялась продолжать разговор (15, 179).

With the verb to remember the infinitive usually refers to the future, and the gerund to the past.

1) I shall always remember meeting you for the first time (= remember what one has done, or what has happened). – Явсегдабудупомнить, какмывстретилисьвпервые.

Remember to go to the post office, won’t you? (= Remember what you have to do). – Незабудьзайтинапочту.

2) To forget.

IshallneverforgetseeingtheQueen. – Я никогда не забуду, как я видел королеву.

She is always forgetting to give me my letters. – Онавсегдазабываетотдаватьмнемоиписьма.

3) To stop.

I really must stop smoking (= stop what one is doing, or does). – Мнедействительнонужнопрекратитькурить.

Every half hour I stop work to smoke a cigarette (= make a break or pause in order o do something). – Каждыеполчасаяпрерываюработу, чтобыпокурить.

4) To go on + Ving.

How long do to intend to go on playing those records? – Какдолготынамереваешьсяслушатьэтипластинки?

to go on + Inf.

He welcomed the new students and then went on to explain the college regulations. – Онпоприветствовалновыхстудентовиприступилкобъявлениюправилколледжа.

5) To regret + Ving.

I don’t regret telling her what I thought, even if it upset her. - Янесожалею, чтосказалейтом, чтодумаю, дажееслиэтоогорчилоее.

To regret + Inf.

I regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you employment. – Ясожалею, нодолженсообщитьвам, чтомынеможемпринятьваснаработу (5, 160).

3.2 The gerund and the participle

In most cases the differentiation between the gerund and the participle does not present any difficulty.

Unlike the participle the gerund may be preceded by a preposition, it may be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun; it can be used in the function of a subject, object and predicative. In the function of an attribute and of an adverbial modifier both the gerund and the participle may be used, but the gerund in these functions always proceeded by a preposition.

There are cases, however, when the differentiation between the gerund and the participle presents some difficulty; for instance, it is not always easy to distinguish between a gerund as part of a compound noun and a participle as an attribute to a noun. One should bear in mind that if we have a gerund as part of a compound noun, the person or thing denoted by the noun does not perform the action expressed by the ing -form: e.g. a dancing-hall (a hall for dancing), a cooking stove (a stove for cooking), walking shoes, a writing-table etc.

If we have participle used as an attribute the person denoted by the noun performs the action expressed by the ing -form: e.g. a dancing girl (a girl who dances), a singing child etc.

However, there are cases which admit of two interpretations; for example a sewing machine, may be understood in two ways: a machine for sewing and a machine which sews; a hunting dog may be a dog for hunting and a dog that hunts(34 – 35).

3.3 The gerund and the verbal noun

The gerund should not be confused with the verbal noun, which has the same suffix -ing. The main points of difference between the gerund and the verbal noun are as follows.

1) Like all the verbals the gerund has a double character - nominal and verbal. – The verbal noun has only a nominal character.

2) The gerund is not used with an article. – The verbal noun may be used with an article.

The making of a new humanity cannot be the privilege of a handful of bureaucrats. – Совершениеновогочеловечестванеможетбытьпривилегиейпригоршнибюрократов.

I want you to give my hair a good brushing. – Яхочу, чтобытыхорошопричесаламоиволосы.

3) The gerund has no plural form. – The verbal noun may be used in the plural.

Our likings are regulated by our circumstances. – Нашисовпадениявовкусахзависятотобстоятельств.

4) The gerund of a transitive verb takes a direct object.

He received more and more letters, so many that he had given up reading them. – Онпоучалвсебольшеибольшеписем, такмного, чтоонбросилихчитать. – A verbal noun cannot take a direct object; it takes a prepositional object with the preposition of. Meanwhile Gwendolyn was rallying her nerves to the reading of the paper. – АтемвременемГвендолендействовалаейнанервычитаябумагу.

5) The gerund may be modified by an adverb.

Drinking, even temperately, was a sin. – Дажевыпивкапопраздникамсчитаетсягрехом. – The verbal noun may be modified by an adjective. TomtookagoodscoldingaboutscoldingSid. – Тома хорошо поругали за то, что он побил камнями Сида.

Not having the verbal meanings, the verbal noun doesn’t have the form of tenses and doesn’t express any voice. After the verbal noun the direct object can’t exist.

They started the loading of the ship. – Ониприступиликпогрузкесудна.

NOTE. – One should notice that the noun is formed not from all verbs due to suffix -ing. The noun can be formed by other methods:

To manufacture – производить; Manufacture – производство;
Toproduce – производить; Production – производство;
Tosell – продавать; Sale – продажа;
To ship – отгружать; Shipment – отгрузка (9, 262).

Section 4 Comparison of the English gerund and its equivalents in Russian

I’ve analyzed the gerund in Russian translations of the book by C.S. Lewis “The Silver Chair” (19), and “The Lion, the Which and the Wardrobe” (20).

I’ve found the translation of these books by Shaposhnikova and Ostrovskaya. These books are under the edition of N.Trauberg (19; 20). One can see that the authors of the translation used a free technique of translation without paying any attention to the grammar and Russian equivalents. At first I’d like to consider the translation of the gerund, which is rendered by other Russian parts of speech (21; 22). There are:

Without speaking – молчание,

for looking while – победил,

for not liking – нелюбит,

she couldn’t help thinking – ейказалось.

Let nothing turn your mind from following the sights! – Незабывайознаках!

like being in an airplane – напоминалсамолет.

The sound of waves breaking on the store was growing louder – Звукиприбоястановилисьгромче.

telling – узнать,

No one suggested doing anything. – Никтонеговорил, чтоделатьдальше.

she began groping with their feet – стоялаизовсехсил,

buzzing – шепчут.

It’s worse than coming back and finding him dead. – Лучшебымнезнать, чтоонумер.

opening – отверстие,

saying – послышалось,

trying – учить,

without delivery – неуспела,

knowing – запоминание,

looking - отправились,

talking of going to a party – речьшлаогостях,

on saying – заметил,

after changing – другим,

resting on – положил,

sleeping – лечь,

stop beating – неостановилась,

talking of archers – острелах,

for being able to shoot – научилсястрелять,

walking – поехали,

there is no denying – спорунет,

there was no mistaking – былиуверены,

saying – спросил,

without thinking –припомнить,

for not knowing – непомнить,

without knocking - неудариться,

climbing down – поступеням,

began making tour – сталибежать

he had to keep on pretending-струдомудержался

looking at-вытаращилаглаза

without meaning-нетрогать

talking again-вспоминать

vanishing-замечать

feeling-хватать

of finding-выходить

stepping out-оказываться

trying on sound-словно

by jeering-смеяться

getting-брать

of getting-попадать

going-перелетела

of being smooth-неровняй

bringing-стукать

for keeping-позволять

there was nothing stirring-кругомнидвижения

wondering-задалвопрос

before leaving-убежал

thinking-хотелось

bringing-в руках

hearing-разбирать

saying-молчали

on using-тереть

(19, 4 – 121; 20, 5 – 20; 22, 4 – 65; 21, 4 – 35).

One can see a big difference between the gerund and Russian equivalents. The thing is that the translator cannot find a direct way to render what C.S.Lewis meant by these gerunds. The translator should see the meaning of words between lines. There is no gerund in Russian and, maybe, it was case for the translator to say like that. But if the translator followed the grammar, the awkward translation would be.

The gerunds, which the translator couldn’t translate:


barging,

telling,

at believing,

dancing,

trying,

of getting,

from gong,

learning,

hearing,

struggling,

vibrating,

without warning,

seeing,

being,

wondering,

talking in,

from drinking,

being carried,

before going on,

from bringing,

of finding,

ringing,

for making,

shifting,

at finding,

of catching,

panting,

mistaking,

purling,

boo-hoeing ,

for keeping,

on remembering,

etching,

for shopping,

of coming,

on getting,

of sitting,

beginning,

on standing,

coming in,

eagling,

waiting,

groping

being

talking

leading

looking out

seeing

being

wondering

talking in

from drinking

being carried

before going on

from bringing

of finding

ringing

pushing

of feeling

wondering

blinking in

feeling

sobbing

jumping out

tapping

putting

pulling

nesting

forgetting

groping

driving

hanging down

flying up

champing

blowing

holding out

shining

of trying

looking at

rising

looking round

for getting

talking about

turning to

talking off

beginning to

minding

trailing round

stamping

pretending

stamping

stooping

about having

without noticing

including

holding

fishing

for caring

looking for

on thinking

of going

about being

keeping

crossing

saying

bounding back

of scrambling

puffing

panting

feeling

looking

running

trying

eating

drinking

passing

on doing

(19, 4 – 121; 20, 4 –77).


The translator has ignored these gerunds because she couldn’t reproduce Lewis’ idea and analogues of the English gerund in Russian.

The gerund as Infinitive

Sucking up – подлизываться,

believing – поверить,

interrupting – перебивать,

teaching – учиться,

getting away – убегать,

roaring – рычать,

snoring – фыркать,

getting – добираться,

going away – отходить,

getting to bed – ложитьсяспать,

ducking – начинать,

waiting – ждать,

gliding away – уползать,

sleeping – спать,

finding – находить,

meeting – встречать,

looking – смотреть,

of having a hot bath – приниматьванну,

repeating – повторять,

reaching – добираться,

getting – налаживать,

opening – открывать,

telling – говорить,

escaping – убегать,

asking – спрашивать,

running – бежать,

slitting – скользить.

dostopgrumbling-перестань ворчать

talking-беседовать

of eating-есть

trickling-беседовать

jumping up-вскакивать

do not go on talking like that-перестаньтакговорить

handing-отдавать

of lulling-усыплять

turning very white-побелеть

beginning-приниматься

withoutspeaking-не говорить ни слова

of crunching-скрипеть

panting for-переводитьдыхание

onasking-спрашивать

bathing-купаться

fishing-ловить рыбу

climbing-лазить

lying-валяться

hiding-прятаться

on teasing-подразнивать

hanging up-висеть

on eating- кушать

coming-приходить

standing-стоять

nagging-дразнить

encouraging-поддерживать

before coming out-вылазить

telling-рассказывать

trying-пробовать

jeering-дразнить

fumbling-нащупывать

sticking-колоть

putting-одеваться

changing-переводить

walking-шагать

harboring-прилегать

fraternizing-брататься

for going back-возвращаться

standing-стоять

on boiling-кипеть

of getting-попадать

knocking-трястись

doing things-действовать

in looking for-искать

of saving-спасаться

talking of-заговорить

telling-рассказывать

knocking-трястись

bundling-одевать

fussing-волноваться

talking-болтать

moving-ходить

helping-помогать

from seeing-видеть

about closing-закрываться

leading-подниматься


The gerund as a finite form of the verb

Talking about – говорила,

shouting out – донеслось,

hoping – надеялись,

tarring – мелькали,

grabbing – вцепился,

singing – пели,

running across – бежаличерез,

scooping out – зачерпнула,

moving – двигались,

glittering – сверкали,

in blessing – благословлял,

leading – пошла,

beginning – начал,

coughing – покашливал,

ringing – звонил,

ruffling – зашелестели,

speaking – заговорили,

blowing – дух,

sitting – сидел,

fishing – удил,

walking – ходил,

hurtling – пронеслось,

telling – говорила,

loitering down – упали,

throwing – бросал,

no time in turning and leading the way back – нетеряявремени

отправились назад,

stumbling – заковылял,

pottering – миновали,

rushing out – бросились,

laughing – смеялись,

looking about – осмотрелась,

coughing – кашлянула,

glancing over – обернулась,

reeling–пошатывалась

handing up-висело

leaving-оставила

falling-падали

coming-приближались

from trailing-волочился

picking up-подбирал

hiding-спряталась

sweeping-неслись

jingling-звенели

cracking-щёлкал

coming out-вырывался

saying nothing-молчал

speaking-сказала

asking-спрашивала

kept on saying-сноваотвечал

calling out-кричала

setting-завёл

listening to-слушал

interrupting-прерывал

telling -рассказывала

panting-затаились

hanging-висели

leading-двинулся

of comforting-давалприют

holding breaths-затаилидыхание

saying-сказал

looking down-раскинулось

preparing-приготовились

shaking-покачал

plunging-погрузились

falling-идёт

swirling-залепляли

slipping-увязал

skidding-скользил

sliding down-проваливался

barking-обдирал

off thinking-размечтался

sliding off-пробирался

his heart stopped beating-егосердцеушловпятки

beating-билось

about standing-стояли

picking up-подняла

laying-положила

walking-шли

bundling-вывалились

bringing-захватила

stopping-остановилась

jolting-застревали

on slipping-скользили

looking-смотрел

running- бросился


The gerund as a noun or verbal noun

Scrambling up – карабканье,

blowing – дуновение,

crying – плач,

speaking – голос,

standing – стоять,

sobbing – всхлипывание,

watching – просмотр,

growing – утолщение,

coming – прибытие,

coughing – кашель,

hauling – стон,

blubbering – всхлипывание,

staying – визит,

the idea of having a good time – мысль,

as being kissed – поцелуй,

walking – прогулка.

laughing-смех

walking-путь

feasting-пир

treasure seeking-поисксокровищ

calling-зов

of cooking-обед

meeting-встреча

there was nothing stirring-кругомнидвижения

jeering-проделка

fussing-тревога

Passive Gerund

At being waked again – когдаразбудили,

we’re safe from being drowned in the river – чемутонем,

without being seen – незаметно.

The gerund as an attribute

Dazzling – развевающиеся.

ofbeingsmooth-не ровный

being nice-ласковее

of flowering-цветущий

in thinking-любопытный

The gerund as деепричастие

Jumping – вспрыгнув

looking up-бросиввзгляд

pushing away-поставив

cocking-скосив

THE CONCLUSION

The aim of my paper was the analysis and translation of gerunds. As you see it was difficult for the translator of C.S.Lewis’ book to present us the gerund as it was used in the book. The translator and we don’t know what C.S.Lewis wanted to say using the gerund. Perhaps, he used gerund so because the grammar rules demanded or it was easy to apply the gerund in this or that situation. I would translate the gerund as our translator did because it suited to Russian equivalents, situation, words etc. If the context demands the changes in the translation because it doesn’t sound good in Russian, why not apply the translation, which is far from the original. One shouldn’t abuse a free translation, because the reader might not understand a general or main point of the book.

As you see C.S.Lewis used himself the gerund frequently after the prepositions.

There are only five Passive gerunds in the whole two books.

If the translator followed the rules, the translation should be awkward and in understandable for reader. You know, there is no rule without exception and the translator often used such exceptions.


LITERATURE

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6) Зражевская Т.А., Беляева Л.М. Трудности перевода с английского языка на русский. – М.: Международные отношения, 1972 – 56 стр.

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