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: 12 15

: 12 15
:
: 04:59:40 15 2008
: 240 : 2 : 0 : 0 :    

1.

- IX . .

. , . , , , . , , , .

IX . 30- XII . , () . , , . , .

XII . , .

XII XIII . .

. . , , . : , .

XII XIII . . , , . , .

- , , - , , . ; .

30- XII . , , . , , . , , . .

, - . , , , , . , - .

, , . XII . . . , , . , , .

XIIXIII . . , . ; .

, , . , .

XII XIII . . .

XII . , . - , . -, , - - , .

XI XII . 15 , , , , - . , XII XIII ., - . -.

, . - , XII . .

, , , , , .

, , , . ( , ) . , , , , - .

XII XIII . , : - ( - ) - ; - - ; - .

() , , . , ( ) - .

2. -, , ,

aae XIII . cex epao A opaoaac ea oeo-eoaa epaa ooo. Mooce eea aac coooco, a a ceepe, paoax a, oxoo.

1206 . a cee ooco a oo Tey pooae e xao (cxao). O oa coeeo ope c c eee aap, oop opoecoa oae pae Ka.

oe aap, oco cxaa oo ce cocee oee eea.

1206 . .

eo 1219 . cxa aa aoeae Cpee A. 200-ca ap ooo-aap papoa coa oae opoa yxapy, Caapa, pe, Mep.

eco 1223 . epea oa. ooe xa Ko epee ep ca ca a y coeo aoo Mccaa Mccaa.

Pycce , ocoeoac, pe oo ooa cpe aap "a yo e" ooex cex. pycc c ec aapcx oco peo p ("ye e a py"). "Ce aopayoe poe oaaoc a pooc, oapco, a paa apoo ec, o ee yep oco" (H.M.Kapa).

Oeea pycco-ooea pa cpeac c oco ooc ca 31 a 1223 . eaeo o . . cex aae ao-ocx py Mccaa aoo oooo aa Bocoo e oepa py . K Mcca Poao, paoa c Mccao a, ypec co co oo a xoe, copoe o o a aa oya a papoo pyccx py.

pyccx py ooe cxo o oaac paec. C epeo Ka a Pyc epyac oo eca ac pyccx oo.

aa pa opae pyccx ocyce y e eoo oaoa. He ceye aa o yex ecx oocoo oooa Cyee-aaypa, oop pa ooe ce oe cpae aa y oyy pyccx.

1237 . ( 140 . ) . . . , , , , . , , .

1238 . ; . - , , . 7 , . , , , - , , , , , , .

1238 . , . 1239 . - . , . . , . . .

, , . . .

1240 . . . , . , , , , . . , . . , , .

6 1240 . , - . , .

, . ; , , , , .

Pycce e ye pa co accay acoc o ooo cxaa. Be apc , a ae poo yepac oco paoa (pa). Te pee a apo ea xaca a (aae copaac aype, a oo "cepepo", .e. ea). copa a ooo-aap e cy acao (oo, ee copax). ep oo peoca o, o pe ee py cox coo.

Oopeeo c aece ooo-aap ece eee eoa pep oy axa ceepo-aae pycce e.

Bocooepoece e ao pea ae ecx, eex, acx eoao co oaca o eopaec ooee. eooecoe ocoae aoeae oxoa aaa pco-aoeca epo, paa copeey pee o cpeac yep coe e aco peoe.

Bopee eex axao pay 1201 . 1201 . yce aao e ocoa peoc Pry. ex aee cac . Pe 1202 . ocoa ope eeoce (o opae ea peca a opeco oee).

ece ace eoa opc a ceep pa. aae ocoa ao Pee (Ta) ep cac pae, e axaa ocpo e. ep occa co po axao 1222-1223 . Tapy (pe). Coeca oopoa pea c pycc. occa cece paoe pao peocxoca pape ce oopye.

eo 1240 . eca o o oaoae pepa (ocoae opoa Cooa) oac Hee ocaoac yce ee poa op opooo oxa. Hoopoc Aecap poca, ceo copa co pyy oopocx pao (ooee), ooe ecy co ecoo oa. Caace co yaa, o y pepa o 5 c oo. Boco Aecapa o aeo ee. Ho ce pe eaoc aae aa oooa. 15 1240 . oa pya Aecapa eoao yapa o op ep pacooe ecx oc. Oopeeo "e"() o ae c oopoe Me acyaa o He, ec paa, opea pape o o.

cpo cao a oea. Hoopoe aoa ao o ceo 20 eoe. a yeco oec apo poa Aecapa Hec. peyae oe epea coo aa ocac a Pyc, o ao oooc pooa opro oe co cpaa Epo.

o e pe axay pyccx ee pcy pap ocoo opea. o, oaee e-acpo opea Apeaco o Beeo, axa peoc opc (1240 .), pa cocy pa oce ceeo oca co.

Aecap Hec axoc epecae. pa oea Hoopoa paoa c oopoc opa. Hoopo poc Aecapa Hecoo epyc Hoopo. Aecap Hec cyacoe oco (1242 . ). 5 1242 . .

ocoe ocyapco c oea coeo oe a cpaax eoce xpo 40- o XIII . oc ao-caco epao. eo coca oa ac copeeo aao eopycc c Hoopyo Bocoa a Aya. ae o ocapco pacpec peeax oo e ao-cacoo apeaa.

I-o ooe XIV . pocxo ypeee ocoo ocyapca p e ee (eace 1315-1341), oop pay a oco pa oco epa, ee coca aae e e Keco Pyc. ocoe ocyapco aaoc Be eco oc Pycc. Opac a eo oepy, aaopycce e aec cpoc opcoe o. 30- . XIV . coec a Aecapo a c eo ooop o ao oo, pa ce "a pao", .e. accao ocoo ocyapca. Opc xa e 1339 . oca a Coec co oca ( o oxoe p yace ococ a Kaa). Coe, oepae oa, o o ac. Opa oa a cpc c oao Coeca a a.

co ypoe pa eoax ooe, xapaep cacx ee, pa peepycco yyp oo e oo coxpa co caooc, o oaa cyeceoe e a cpo opeo . oce pa ece oa, ypa " cape", coxpa coyc paee ccey coceoc. oce eoa ycaa ceoc ocox ca, ae ao ocoo ocyapca pee Pyc.

5 1410. p pae Bocoo pycc (e oa) coeee c aec copyeoe opaee Teocoy opey (eo cooc pex coecx oo pea oe cpae cococoaa oee).

3.

XIV . ca aeac ee oecoo oee pyccx ee. poeccy oee cococoao coao-ooecoe pae cpa, xo e ao cee, a aao Epoe.

ceco xoce pocxo epexo yx- pexoo ccee ceooopoa; oco axo opye caoc coxa c ee coo, e aa yop aoo.

cepe XIV . aae occaaac a po opoo. Ho epa peeca opo ca Moca, Tep, H Hoopo.

Oac opo c Bocoo aao. Booooc aeoe xpaooe cpoeco. ocy ycex yeo eo ee (1382 . epoe yoae o pycco apep "ax").

XIII - XV . pe poca eoaoo eeae (cecoo yxooo). C cep XIV . epo aae pepaac pyoo eoaa eeaea, ecop a ee a yyee epox pao oa o o coceoc. Beco o coceoc oec oacpca. epoaao oax coca coeo poa xocee ape, co pya cpo oe, paca opec ec o oopo a, ao poooe eoooe xoco. Ceepo-Bocoo Pyc c XIV . oae oeco .. ycx oacpe, a o opocx epo. aaee "ycoeca" ae o XIV . c. Cep Paoec, ocoae Tpoe-Cepea oacp, a pooaee c. Kp, ocoae eoepcoo oacp.

Oao XV . oacpe pocxo ee. a o coo eeoo ooae oacpe c eee a " ye" ( a "o y"), oope eeae aa oacp. aoap oy oe oacp pyox o pepac pyx eeaee, pacopaxc pyo coe c peccx py.

Cece eoa paaa co cya o peeoe ooae ac cox ae. Opaoac "op" eoaa, caaac oa opa eeae ycooe epae e oa pocoa eoao ope. Haao ape-oe pecca ec opaee paa epexoa pec o cpoo oy pe e (26 op).

cee eoaoo ea opoao accoy opy, a o poo c o eoxooc co eco ac.

ce e ao ocoeoc opaoa pocccoo epaoaoo ocyapca o peoaae oecx p a ooec. o oe poecca epaa Pocc o aao Epo. aao Epoe epaa a oooea pee ceo coao-ooec aopa.

Pocc ca eca ac ya a yoe ooo-aapcoo a. poecc epaa ycope e oo eoxooc op c ooo Opo (pee ceo), o c ypoa co copo ocoo opea.

XIV-XV . ycaec oee ey pycc e ooc oe "Pocc ".

. . , . . : XIII-XV . . , 1986

. ., . ., Ը . . 1861 . . , 1989

. . - . . , 1973

. / . . . . . , 1993

. . . . . -. 1989

/
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