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: 05:13:09 20 2009
: 138 : 2 : 0 : 0 :    

- , . , , . - .

XIX , , . . .

. - ; , , , .

Ha ao-o ae coe pya epoecx ee, oopx a aeax, x pe ac, pac, aac, epac, oeac ocoo po co, yp oopoo ee eoo pee pocxoo cee (epoa, paae) ae, eoxooe pao aooa ey ea eeoo coa. oo peoaa, o I cee o . . ye cyecoa oepoec , apaepoac ocoeoc, oc ec oo cac a, o ooe copee cceae, aa eo pacac.

Coeopae pacacoo a ao cee ocec e, o eo coece ee oycoac pcy oo ey ee pa. Cao e x a ee coooy e pe. Ha oe ae pa pacacoo a oopec oooe cpoee coo, eee epecpoe pex oo a opao, o ce o aac ac.

pacac cyecoa o cepe l cee . ., oa oope a e eea, paccec a opx eppox epao, Bocoo o-Bocoo Epo, aa ypaa c py c pyo. ao oocoxc py ee pooa paac opoao o pyx, popea oe yoe, paaece ecece ocoeoc o o y opaoa pocex o eoo a‑coa (paa).

- . , .

, , . , , . - : () . () .

, :

1. ;

2. ;

3. .

- : , ocoocaca e ee p oco oee pycc, ypac, eopycc , a ea pyccoo a ee oepe e ocoe e ceepooe opyccoe ape, .

Ec e opa ae a aee oee xo o-pyccoro ape, o ye o, a e ec e-o coecx, epxeepocx, epxeeccx, ypco-opocx, pacx, pco‑pcx, ycx, eex ococx oopo. Ha x, ec pcoa apy aeopecoo poocooo pea ae, ec ee eo c ooce coa oopa oex epee aceex yo.

Kaoe x ape xapaepyec eco o ocoeoc, oop cea oo ya ceepopyca opyca. Hape caac a poe ecox coe, a aao x oppo oocc oxe Keco Pyc.

O peex aex e, c oopx aaoc opaoae oo ceepoo ape pyccoo a, o pooee eeoo ya [γ] (ooo x) a ece poo []: [ γ] ooa, [ γ] po, [ γ] yu, o[γ] o , op[ γ] a p o ec [] epeyec a oe coa c []: no-py[] a py[], o[] a o[], py [] py []), o [γ] epeyec c [x]: nopy [γ] a py [x], [γ] a o [x], py [γ] py[x]. Xopoo eca ocoa: Cap py ye ox yx. Boa a ocoa opycco cpee, e coa py[x] y[x] coca oy py.

ee o apooc XIXII . e‑o a epoco ee, a ae poo cocee Kecy Pacy e, oceeo axaa ce oe oe eppop. pooee eeoo ya a ece poo [] coceo ceac e oo oy ape, o ypacoy eopyccoy a.

Cey ee, e oe aoe aee oppoa pyccx ape, o aae. Boo oo, a ca oe yee, oe XII epo ooe XIII . epoaaa oac e pacpocpae acce epxe cpee O eypee O Cea, . e. copeee Kypca, Opoca, Tyca Paca oac. Boa oo e, oceeo pacpocpac a eep, axaa Coece ooe e ( XIVXV .), ae oca poa cocy e ocay eppop copeeo eopyc. oope Moc aae yepoc c XVI . ceepy o pa aa pooao coxpac oae. paa ooo oa ceac o ee coaae c pae ceepoo ape.

Ee oa pa opycca epa ooae e poeo aee eceoo ca cyecex 1‑ coe. y aey epy opaae oa a opycco eppop eca ooopa ooo ye c xe a ye. Ocoeoc a poaa pae ococoe pocopee. epoaao pea ycoo poaa cxax Oe oop ecoy:

epax y O e

Ka y Baoo aoe:

Kpya, paca o oa,

Ka a ya ya

Ha o yo eocoe

epaypo e pao y ao y oee e y cpoy.

Ho oe ooopaoa pacpocpac e oo c a. C ceepx eppop oao cpeoe ee ox o.

Ec cope peee a pycco ceoc XI XII ., o oo oapy aoe op o ece, ce, epu, ou oy, e, xo 3‑ e eceoo oece . . XIII [] . XIV - . .

, , . , , . , .

Ececeo, o aoe peo poco e cpay, o oo e cpay a paeoc papococ, o co ocoe eo e cape oee ex ee eoe. a poco oo e cea eeo poo: e‑o e ocxa, ae‑o opy.

pecae ec p a cacx o aeo occ ecece cac a aea, ca-co oo cx e ceoo ee o, e opao‑ceo op. ec pae e oo cacoo ooro pea ae oc e cpay, o e ay oc opaoae a x ocoe apaeo c ye cee, e, oppoae, o oo cycee oe cce epaype .

IX . pya pae Kpa Meo coa ep cac epayp capocac . eo ocoe ea ae coycx ca, a e cea epeo c peecoo a pa epox x , a oe aca eoope opae poee.

Capocac oa caaa aaocaco cpee Beo Mopa (oca p pcyx ey opao), a ae pac‑pocpac y x ca, e ocoy po eo pa pa e o Oxpca pecaca. C X . o aae oa y ocox ca, e o ece o ee coecoo a, a yee aa eo o epoocac peecac . , , , , .

, , , . , , , .

, , :

1. , , : , , , ;

2. , : , , , (. : , , , );

3. , .. , , : , , , .

peecac eyapo, ecac o o o XVIII . oaa ooe e a cop copee o ox cacx o, pee ceo pyccoo a. Capocace a o o ac c y ccea ca aoeco peco.

. , , (, XI . ), XVIII , , . () . .

. , , , .

VIIIXII . . , (VI .) (IX .), , .

XVIXVII . , XVIII . I, , , , . , , .

XVII . .

.. . . , . , .

, , . , .

oay, cao pyo aae, coe pe y, o ocoee opooo cca pocope apox oopo. pee o aa e o o pao yc a co eoo aoaoo epaypoo a, eoo cocoo eco opa‑eoc.

pocopee paoopa pe peyeo opocoo acee: ac oca, eoo cpeeo oeca, xoeca, paoo ee, eca. Oo co oaoc o apoaoro oo a, o payo pe cecoo pya. Opao poco y ca capoococoo opocoo a.

a apox aeax oop peyeo pece pax oace Poc, peece, op, ooe acc, apoye poceee.

He ce pocope o peeo ya, a oo eo pe pecao coo ooo ecpoe ee. y, apep, peeo e pa ypx oec, . e. pe oypoceex yo ea, aaepe , co e cycce ea, a pe acoo yyapa.

epe y a oe paoopaa oa eceoc ape cocoe, npoeccoae, oace. Cooec ce o, e eoe, c eoe eoe oce aec py, peoa opox a eao y.

ecpo oo cx o axo ecoo opepo: yopeeoc co pae, x eoxooc, x coceoc pyccoy y, x opaoc eoc. Bce oee a ocoy e o apoy pe, oopa oeec eo c o apox ece, cao: ae poco apoe ca, ooe cae, o -e coca pyccoo a.

Coxpa ce, o aoa epaypa pa eo pee, o epcey pa epaypoo a eo coee c pocoapooc.

y aa cxe, ao a cooe ce. o cx coeoc ecoo ooo: epaypa pa XVIII ., pe yypoo oeca, opocoe pocopee, epeeco‑oopa pocoapooc.

y yepc aece op opaa pyccoo ceapooo epaypoo a. O oca a eoe copoe yopoey cpey cx cooe x ce yc. eo aey paac epayp paoopa pe ae pe.

copeeo caco pe cyecye 12 aoax epaypx o: p ocoocacx pycc, ypac eopycc, aaocacx o, ec, coa, epxeyocep eyocepc epe oacx cepcoxopac, coec, oapc aeoc.

1. .. . / . .. , .. . .: , 1981. 276 .

2. . ., 1990

3. . / . .. . .: .- .-, 1983. 253 .

4. .. . ., 1990

5. .., .., .. . .: -, 2002.

6. . . , 1984

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