Банк рефератов содержит более 364 тысяч рефератов, курсовых и дипломных работ, шпаргалок и докладов по различным дисциплинам: истории, психологии, экономике, менеджменту, философии, праву, экологии. А также изложения, сочинения по литературе, отчеты по практике, топики по английскому.
Полнотекстовый поиск
Всего работ:
364150
Теги названий
Разделы
Авиация и космонавтика (304)
Административное право (123)
Арбитражный процесс (23)
Архитектура (113)
Астрология (4)
Астрономия (4814)
Банковское дело (5227)
Безопасность жизнедеятельности (2616)
Биографии (3423)
Биология (4214)
Биология и химия (1518)
Биржевое дело (68)
Ботаника и сельское хоз-во (2836)
Бухгалтерский учет и аудит (8269)
Валютные отношения (50)
Ветеринария (50)
Военная кафедра (762)
ГДЗ (2)
География (5275)
Геодезия (30)
Геология (1222)
Геополитика (43)
Государство и право (20403)
Гражданское право и процесс (465)
Делопроизводство (19)
Деньги и кредит (108)
ЕГЭ (173)
Естествознание (96)
Журналистика (899)
ЗНО (54)
Зоология (34)
Издательское дело и полиграфия (476)
Инвестиции (106)
Иностранный язык (62792)
Информатика (3562)
Информатика, программирование (6444)
Исторические личности (2165)
История (21320)
История техники (766)
Кибернетика (64)
Коммуникации и связь (3145)
Компьютерные науки (60)
Косметология (17)
Краеведение и этнография (588)
Краткое содержание произведений (1000)
Криминалистика (106)
Криминология (48)
Криптология (3)
Кулинария (1167)
Культура и искусство (8485)
Культурология (537)
Литература : зарубежная (2044)
Литература и русский язык (11657)
Логика (532)
Логистика (21)
Маркетинг (7985)
Математика (3721)
Медицина, здоровье (10549)
Медицинские науки (88)
Международное публичное право (58)
Международное частное право (36)
Международные отношения (2257)
Менеджмент (12491)
Металлургия (91)
Москвоведение (797)
Музыка (1338)
Муниципальное право (24)
Налоги, налогообложение (214)
Наука и техника (1141)
Начертательная геометрия (3)
Оккультизм и уфология (8)
Остальные рефераты (21697)
Педагогика (7850)
Политология (3801)
Право (682)
Право, юриспруденция (2881)
Предпринимательство (475)
Прикладные науки (1)
Промышленность, производство (7100)
Психология (8694)
психология, педагогика (4121)
Радиоэлектроника (443)
Реклама (952)
Религия и мифология (2967)
Риторика (23)
Сексология (748)
Социология (4876)
Статистика (95)
Страхование (107)
Строительные науки (7)
Строительство (2004)
Схемотехника (15)
Таможенная система (663)
Теория государства и права (240)
Теория организации (39)
Теплотехника (25)
Технология (624)
Товароведение (16)
Транспорт (2652)
Трудовое право (136)
Туризм (90)
Уголовное право и процесс (406)
Управление (95)
Управленческие науки (24)
Физика (3463)
Физкультура и спорт (4482)
Философия (7216)
Финансовые науки (4592)
Финансы (5386)
Фотография (3)
Химия (2244)
Хозяйственное право (23)
Цифровые устройства (29)
Экологическое право (35)
Экология (4517)
Экономика (20645)
Экономико-математическое моделирование (666)
Экономическая география (119)
Экономическая теория (2573)
Этика (889)
Юриспруденция (288)
Языковедение (148)
Языкознание, филология (1140)

Реферат: Taras Shevchenko

Название: Taras Shevchenko
Раздел: Рефераты по зарубежной литературе
Тип: реферат Добавлен 21:52:53 26 апреля 2007 Похожие работы
Просмотров: 5027 Комментариев: 2 Оценило: 2 человек Средний балл: 3.5 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать

Department of education and science of Ukraine

Ukrainian state university of chemical engineering

Department of foreign languages

Taras Shevchenko

st. gr. G-77

Galutva A.

Dniepropetrovsk

2007

Taras Shevchenko

Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko

Taras Shevchenko

Born:

March 9 [O.S. February 25] 1814
Moryntsi, Ukraine

Died:

March 10 [O.S. February 26] 1861
Saint Petersburg, Russia

Occupation:

Poet and artist

Nationality:

Ukrainian

Writing period:

1840-1861

Debut works:

Kobzar

Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (Ukrainian: Тарас Григорович Шевченко) (March 9 [O.S. February 25] 1814 – March 10 [O.S. February 26] 1861) was a Ukrainian poet, also an artist and a humanist. His literary heritage is regarded to be the foundation of modern Ukrainian literature and, to a large extent, of modern Ukrainian language. Shevchenko also wrote in Russian and left many masterpieces of his artistic work.

Life

Born into a serf family in the village of Moryntsi, of Kiev Governorate of the Russian Empire (now in Cherkasy Oblast, Ukraine. Shevchenko was orphaned at the age of eleven.[1] He was taught how to read by a village precentor, and loved to draw at every opportunity. Shevchenko served his owner Pavel Engelhardt in Vilnius (1828–1831) and then Saint Petersburg.

Engelhardt noticed Shevchenko's artistic talent, and in Saint Petersburg he apprenticed him to the painter Vasiliy Shiriaev for four years. There he met the Ukrainian artist Ivan Soshenko, who introduced him to other compatriots, such as Yevhen Hrebinka and Vasyl Hryhorovych, and to the Russian painter Alexey Venetsianov. Through these men Shevchenko also met the famous painter and professor Karl Briullov, who donated his portrait of the Russian poet Vasily Zhukovsky as a lottery prize, whose proceeds were used to buy Shevchenko's freedom on May 5, 1838.[1]

First Successes

Taras Shevchenko

Taras Shevchenko

Self-portrait of Taras Shevchenko, 1840.

In the same year Shevchenko was accepted as a student into the Academy of Arts in the workshop of Karl Briullov. The next year he became a resident student at the Association for the Encouragement of Artists. At the annual examinations at the Imperial Academy of Arts, Shevchenko was given a Silver Medal for a landscape. In 1840 he again received the Silver Medal, this time for his first oil painting, The Beggar Boy Giving Bread to a Dog.

He began writing poetry while he was a serf and in 1840 his first collection of poetry, Kobzar, was published. Ivan Franko, the renowned Ukrainian poet in the generation after Shevchenko, had this to say of the compilation: "[Kobzar ] immediately revealed, as it were, a new world of poetry. It burst forth like a spring of clear, cold water, and sparkled with a clarity, breadth and elegance of artistic expression not previously known in Ukrainian writing."

In 1841, the epic poem Haidamaky was released. In September of 1841, Shevchenko was awarded his third Silver Medal for The Gypsy Fortune Teller. Shevchenko also wrote plays. In 1842, he released a part of the tragedy Nykyta Hayday and in 1843 he completed the drama Nazar Stodolya.

While residing in Saint Petersburg, Shevchenko made three trips to Ukraine, in 1843, 1845, and 1846. The difficult conditions under which his countrymen lived had a profound impact on the poet-painter. Shevchenko visited his still enserfed siblings and other relatives, met with prominent Ukrainian writers and intellectuals such as: Yevhen Hrebinka, Panteleimon Kulish, and Mykhaylo Maksymovych, and was befriended by the princely Repnin family especially Varvara Repnina.

In 1844, distressed by the tsarist oppression and destruction of Ukraine, Shevchenko decided to capture some of his homeland's historical ruins and cultural monuments in an album of etchings, which he called Picturesque Ukraine .

Exile

Taras Shevchenko

Taras Shevchenko

Self-portrait as a soldier, 1847.

On March 22, 1845, the Council of the Academy of Arts decided to grant Shevchenko the title of an artist. He again travelled to Ukraine where he met the historian, Nikolay Kostomarov and other members of the Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius, a secret political society, created to advocate a wide set of political reforms in the Russian Empire.[1] Upon the society's suppression by the authorities, Shevchenko was arrested along with other members on April 5, 1847. Although he probably was not an official member of the Brotherhood, during the search his poem "The Dream" ("Son" ) was found. This poem criticized imperial rule and therefore was considered extremely dangerous and of all the members of the dismantled society Shevchenko was punished most severely.

Shevchenko was sent to prison in Saint Petersburg. He was exiled as a private with the Russian military Orenburg garrison at Orsk, near Orenburg, near the Ural Mountains. Tsar Nicholas I, confirming his sentence, added to it, "Under the strictest surveillance, with a ban on writing and painting." It was not until 1857 that Shevchenko finally returned from exile after receiving a pardon, though he was not permitted to return to St. Petersburg but was exiled to Nizhniy Novgorod. In May of 1859, Shevchenko got permission to go to Ukraine. He intended to buy a plot of land not far from the village of Pekariv and settle in Ukraine. In July, he was arrested on a charge of blasphemy, but was released and ordered to return to St. Petersburg.

Death of Shevchenko

Taras Shevchenko

Taras Shevchenko

The last self-portrait. 1860.

Taras Shevchenko spent the last years of his life working on new poetry, paintings, and engravings, as well as editing his older works. But after his difficult years in exile his final illness proved too much. Shevchenko died in Saint Petersburg on March 10, 1861. He was first buried at the Smolensk Cemetery in Saint Petersburg. However, fulfilling Shevchenko's wish, as expressed in his poem "Testament" (Zapovit ), to be buried in Ukraine, his friends arranged to transfer his remains by train to Moscow and then by horse-drawn wagon to his native land. Shevchenko's remains were buried on May 8 on Chernecha Hora (Monk's Hill ; now Tarasova Hora or Taras' Hill ) by the Dnieper River near Kaniv.[1] A tall mound was erected over his grave, now a memorial part of the Kaniv Museum-Preserve.

Dogged by terrible misfortune in love and life, the poet died seven days before the Emancipation of Serfs was announced. His works and life are revered by Ukrainians and his impact on Ukrainian literature is immense.

Heritage and legacy

Impact

Taras Shevchenko

Taras Shevchenko

A monument to Taras Shevchenko in Kiev, Ukraine, is located across the Kiev University that bears the poet's name.

Taras Shevchenko has a unique place in Ukrainian cultural history and in world literature. His writings formed the foundation for the modern Ukrainian literature to a degree that he is also considered the founder of the modern written Ukrainian language (although Ivan Kotlyarevsky pioneered the literary work in what was close to the modern Ukrainian in the end of the eighteenth century). Shevchenko's poetry contributed greatly to the growth of Ukrainian national consciousness, and his influence on various facets of Ukrainian intellectual, literary, and national life is still felt to this day. Influenced by Romanticism, Shevchenko managed to find his own manner of poetic expression that encompassed themes and ideas germane to Ukraine and his personal vision of its past and future.

In view of his literary importance, the impact of his artistic work is often missed although his contemporaries valued his artistic work no less, or perhaps even more, than the literary one. A great number of his pictures, drawings and etchings preserved to this day testify for his unique artistic talent. He also experimented with the photography and it is little known that Shevchenko may be considered to have pioneered the art of etching in the Russian Empire (in 1860 he was awarded the title of the Academician in the Imperial Academy of Arts specifically for his achievements in etching.)[2]

His influence on the Ukrainian culture has been so immense, that even at Soviet times, the official position was to downplay strong Ukrainian nationalism expressed in his poetry, suppressing any mention of it, and to put an emphasis on the social and anti-Tsarist aspects of his legacy, the Class struggle within the Russian Empire. Shevchenko, who himself was born a serf and suffered tremendously for his political views in opposition to the established order of the Empire, was presented in the Soviet times as an internationalist who stood up in general for the plight of the poor classes exploited by the reactionary political regime rather than the vocal proponent of the Ukrainian national idea.

This view is significantly revised in modern independent Ukraine where he is now viewed as almost an iconic figure with the unmatched significance for the Ukrainian nation, the view that has been mostly shared all along by the Ukrainian diaspora that has always revered Shevchenko.

Monuments and Memorials

Taras Shevchenko

Taras Shevchenko

The ceremonial opening of the monument by the Latvian sculptor Janis Tilbergs to Taras Shevchenko in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg) on December 1, 1918. The inscription says: "To the great Ukrainian poet-pesant T. G. Shevchenko (1814 - 1861) from the great Russian nation." The plaster monument existed for only eight years due to the deterioration of the material in the open air. It was planned to be replaced by a bronze version which never happened.

There are many monuments to Shevchenko throughout Ukraine, most notably at his memorial in Kaniv and in the center of Kiev, just across the Kiev University that bears his name. The Kiev Metro station, Tarasa Shevchenka, is also dedicated to Shevchenko. Among other notable monuments to the poet located throughout Ukraine are the ones in Kharkiv (in front of the Shevchenko Park), Lviv, Luhansk and many others.

Outside of Ukraine monuments to Shevchenko have been put up in several location of the former USSR associated with his legacy, both in the Soviet and the post-Soviet times. The modern monument in Saint Petersburg was erected on December 22, 2000, but the first monument (pictured) was built in the city in 1918 on the order of Lenin shortly after the Great Russian Revolution. There is also a monument located next to the Shevchenko museum at the square that bears the poet's name in Orsk, Russia (the location of the military garrison where the poet served) where there are also a street, a library and the Pedagogical Institute named to the poet.[3] There are Shevchenko monuments and museums in the cities of Kazakhstan where he was later transferred by the military: Aqtau (the city was named Shevchenko between 1964 and 1992) and nearby Fort Shevchenko (renamed from Fort Alexandrovsky in 1939).

After Ukraine gained its independence in the wake of the 1991 Soviet Collapse, some Ukrainian cities replaced their statues of Lenin with statues of Taras Shevchenko[citation needed ] and in some locations that lacked streets named to him, local authorities renamed the streets or squares to Shevchenko, even though these sites usually have little or no connection to his biography. These memorials testify, perhaps, to a greater spirit of patriotism than historical accuracy.

Outside of Ukraine and the former USSR monuments to Shevchenko have been put up in many countries, usually under the initiative of local Ukrainian diasporas. There are several memorial societies and monuments to him throughout Canada and the United States, most notably a monument in Washington, D.C., near Dupont Circle. There is also a monument in Tipperary Hill in Syracuse, United States.

The town of Vita in Manitoba, Canada was originally named Shevchenko in his honor. There is a Shevchenko Square in Paris located in the heart of the central Saint-Germain-des-Prés district. The Leo Mol sculpture garden in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, contains many images of Taras Shevchenko.

A two-tonne bronze statue of Shevchenko, located in a memorial park outside of Oakville, Ontario was discovered stolen in December 2006. It was taken for scrap metal; the head was recovered in a damaged state, but the statue was not repairable.

Taras Shevchenko

Taras Shevchenko monument in Luhansk, Ukraine.

Taras Shevchenko

Statue of Taras Shevchenko in Lviv, Ukraine

Taras Shevchenko

Taras Shevchenko Monument in Washington, D.C.

Taras Shevchenko

Taras Shevchenko Place Street Sign in New York City, NY

Example of poetry

Testament (Zapovit )

When I am dead, bury me
In my beloved Ukraine,
My tomb upon a grave mound high
Amid the spreading plain,
So that the fields, the boundless steppes,
The Dnieper's plunging shore
My eyes could see, my ears could hear
The mighty river roar.

When from Ukraine the Dnieper bears
Into the deep blue sea
The blood of foes ... then will I leave
These hills and fertile fields --
I'll leave them all and fly away
To the abode of God,
And then I'll pray .... But till that day
I nothing know of God.

Oh bury me, then rise ye up
And break your heavy chains
And water with the tyrants' blood
The freedom you have gained.
And in the great new family,
The family of the free,
With softly spoken, kindly word
Remember also me.

— Taras Shevchenko, 25 December 1845, Pereyaslav.


References:

1. Shevchenko, Taras (English) . Encyclopedia of Ukraine . Retrieved on March 22, 2007.

2. (Russian) Paola Utevskaya, Dmitriy Gorbachev, «He could have understood Picasso himself», Zerkalo Nedeli, July 26 - August 1, 1997.

3. (Russian) Historical page of Orsk.

4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taras_Hryhorovych_Shevchenko

Оценить/Добавить комментарий
Имя
Оценка
Комментарии:
Где скачать еще рефератов? Здесь: letsdoit777.blogspot.com
Евгений07:13:21 19 марта 2016
Кто еще хочет зарабатывать от 9000 рублей в день "Чистых Денег"? Узнайте как: business1777.blogspot.com ! Cпециально для студентов!
14:13:59 25 ноября 2015

Работы, похожие на Реферат: Taras Shevchenko
Социальное объявление развития \english\
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AD Contents Experts about the project . 7 Проект очима рецензентів . 151 Foreword .
mention the decision of two public organizations (Ukrainian Social Innovation Society and Atlantic Council of Ukraine) and Information and Library Department of the Secretariat of ...
The "reincarnation" of Ukrainian national spirit was realized in the works of Taras Shevchenko (1814-1861), what gave an ideological ground to the following generations of ...
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: реферат Просмотров: 340 Комментариев: 2 Похожие работы
Оценило: 0 человек Средний балл: 0 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать
Ben Jonson and his Comedies
... OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN GULISTAN STATE UNIVERSITY The English and Literature Department Qualification work on speciality English philology on ...
As his work became ever more distinctive and classically inspired he began to heap disdain on other writers and their work.
He had (very heroically for a man of his habits) determined to make the journey on foot; and he was speedily followed by John Taylor, the water-poet, who still further handicapped ...
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: дипломная работа Просмотров: 553 Комментариев: 3 Похожие работы
Оценило: 1 человек Средний балл: 3 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать
Практикум з стилістики англійської мови
Кухаренко В.А. Практикум з стилістики англійської мови: Підручник. Вінниця. "Нова книга", 2000 - 160 с. CONTENTS FOREWORD..
If any dispassionate spectator could have beheld the countenance of the illustrious man, whose name forms the leading feature of the title of this work, during the latter part of ...
Had the man looked through another peephole he might have said "Saints and angels and martyrs and holy men" and he would have meant the same thing.
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: учебное пособие Просмотров: 3792 Комментариев: 2 Похожие работы
Оценило: 0 человек Средний балл: 0 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать
English topics
The Russian Federation. The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one-seventh of the earth"s surface. It"s total ...
He also designed his own home, he remained the most influencial
S. Marshak, a great soviet poet, brought Burns to russian people throught his fine translate.
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: топик Просмотров: 3712 Комментариев: 5 Похожие работы
Оценило: 3 человек Средний балл: 3.7 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать
History of American Literature
Higher and Secondary Special Education Ministry of the Republic of Uzbekistan Gulistan State University "History of American Literature" Guliston-2005 ...
In his poem "Mak Swiggen Satire" шеър (1775) he created sativical image of a (dull, untalented ungitted poet, dullard = (blockhead) - туница Mack Swiggen.
Part also derives from the economy with which he works, suggesting much in little, in the manner of a poet.
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: учебное пособие Просмотров: 1115 Комментариев: 3 Похожие работы
Оценило: 0 человек Средний балл: 0 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать
Засоби вираження модальності в сучасній англійській мові та ...
Зміст Вступ Розділ 1. Модальність як функціонально-семантична категорія 1.1 Концептуальні підходи до визначення поняття модальності у лінгвістиці 1.2 ...
".before Ukraine truly becomes an independent and worthy nation" (The Ukrainian, p.10). - ".щоб стати по-справжньому незалежною та гідною державою" (The Ukrainian, p.10).
"He probably does not know where his daughter is now or what has happened to her" (The Ukrainian, p.48).
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: курсовая работа Просмотров: 8702 Комментариев: 2 Похожие работы
Оценило: 0 человек Средний балл: 0 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать
Humanity in J. Conrad's and W. Somerset's creativity
Content INTRODUCTION PART I. ENGLISH NARRATIVE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EDWARDIAN LITERATURE 1.1 The main representatives of the prose writing in the ...
Notable Modernist poet T. S. Eliot wrote vehemently against prose poems, though he did try his hand at one or two.
He also added to the debate about what defines the genre, saying in his introduction to Djuna Barnes' highly poeticized 1936 novel Nightwood that this work may not be classed as ...
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: курсовая работа Просмотров: 125 Комментариев: 2 Похожие работы
Оценило: 0 человек Средний балл: 0 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать
Stylistic Features of Charles Dickens"s works
... EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN GULISTAN STATE UNIVERSITY "Stylistic Features of Charles Dickens"s works" Gulistan-2008 1. Charles Dicken"s ...
While Dickens has entertained millions with his novels, he also intended them as mean of social reform, Human welfare could not keep place with the technological advances of his ...
In 1841 he visited the USA and Canada to lecture on his works on his works.
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: курсовая работа Просмотров: 4336 Комментариев: 2 Похожие работы
Оценило: 0 человек Средний балл: 0 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать
Comparison of nouns in English and Russian languages
Content Introduction Chapter I Morphological features of nouns 1.1 Classification of nouns in English 1.2 Morphological characteristics of Nouns 1.3 ...
The chap was so big now that he was there nearly all his time, like some immovable, sardonic, humorous eye nothing to decline of men and things.
In our course work we had investigated the similarities and differences of grammatical categories of noun in English and in Russian languages.
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: курсовая работа Просмотров: 8132 Комментариев: 3 Похожие работы
Оценило: 3 человек Средний балл: 4.7 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать
Parable thinking in W. Faulner's novel "A fable"
Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University Department of Foreign Philology Parable thinking in W ...
While in New York in January 1953, he adapted his story The Brooch for television while also working on A Fable and suffering bouts of back pain and alcoholism that required ...
He notes also that the Corporal"s entombment in the monument of the Unknown Soldier, although a sort of victory, is too heavily ironic to constitute a real victory for primitive ...
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: дипломная работа Просмотров: 90 Комментариев: 2 Похожие работы
Оценило: 0 человек Средний балл: 0 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать

Все работы, похожие на Реферат: Taras Shevchenko (348)

Назад
Меню
Главная
Рефераты
Благодарности
Опрос
Станете ли вы заказывать работу за деньги, если не найдете ее в Интернете?

Да, в любом случае.
Да, но только в случае крайней необходимости.
Возможно, в зависимости от цены.
Нет, напишу его сам.
Нет, забью.



Результаты(149897)
Комментарии (1829)
Copyright © 2005-2016 BestReferat.ru bestreferat@mail.ru       реклама на сайте

Рейтинг@Mail.ru