The Russian literature of 20 centuries developed roughly and is inconsistent. The Russian literature of 20 centuries is not only preservation and development of traditions of writers and poets of 19 centuries, it and the innovative approach to creation of new themes, images.
20 centuries in history of Russian poetry were unique time. At that time bright young poets at once have come to the literature many, talented and searching for new ways. The hobby for poetry was mass - approximately as now go on rock concerts. The poet, having got popularity, becomes a figure cult. It was meant, what exactly to it the God allowed to understand True - and to explain to its other. Each of poets felt itself as a few prophet, on it huge responsibility laid - to choose is unique a true way and to specify to its other.
Large poets united in groups on interests, then to them the set of imitators adjoined. Symbolists, acmeists, futurists, ishamanists - each of these currents found the ardent adherents and admirers and not less furious enemies.
In the beginning of 20 centuries there were many reprisals, many left in emigration. But the Russian literature of 20 centuries developed prompt rates. The contribution to development of the Russian literature have brought: Ivan Alekseevich Bunin, Anna Andreevna Ahmatova, Maxim Gorky, Vladimir Vladimirovich Majakovsky and others.
Now the most actual is the problem of theoretical judgement of the most complicated phenomenon, as the Russian literature of 20 centuries. In the abstract I have considered Anna Andreevny Ahmatovoj's poetry.
Terrestrial drink is too sweet,
Love networks are too dense.
Let sometime my name
Children will read in the textbook.
The future poetess was born on June, 23rd 1889 in suburb of Odessa the Big Fountain in a family of the retired engineer-captain of 2nd rank of Andrey Antonovicha Gorenko and Inna Erazmovny. In a family was six children. Great-grandmother Anna on a parent line conducted a sort from Tatar khan Ahmata; therefore the young writer in the further a beret to itself a surname of the great-grandmother as a pseudonym. On a parent line, obviously, has passed also literary gift: known poetess Anna Bunin (1794-1829) was the aunt of the mum's father.
In a year after Anna's birth the family moves to Tsarskoe Selo where it grew till sixteen years, every summer, spending under Sevastopol. Children's summer memoirs became a basis for its first poem «At the sea» in 1914, and motives of Imperial village and Pushkin were a creative basis, and frequently and a support throughout all life.
First poem Ahmatova has written, when to it was eleven years, and all in maidenly years has created them about two hundred. She studied in the Tsarskoselsky Mariinsky female grammar school: «I Studied at first badly, then much better, but always reluctantly». In Tsarskoe Selo in Christmas Eve 1903 Any Gorenko has got acquainted with grammar-school boy Nikolay Gumilev, and became the constant addressee of its poems.
After divorce of parents in 1905 Ahmatova together with mother moves to Evpatoria, and later to Kiev. A gymnasia course it passed in-home as it was threatened with a tuberculosis, but last class has ended in the Fundukleevsky grammar school in Kiev then has arrived on legal branch of the Kiev higher female courses.
At this time she corresponded with Gumilev who have left to Paris. In 1907 in Paris, in magazine "Sirius" published by Gumilev the poetess has published the first poem «On its hand many brilliant rings» under the initials «And. Г». Itself Ahmatova recollected it so: «To me therefore has occurred to take to itself a pseudonym, that the daddy, having learnt about my verses, has told:« do not shame my name "." And it is not necessary to me of your name! »- I have told...»
In the spring of 1910 after several refusals Ahmatova has agreed to become wife N.S.Gumileva. Spouses have got married on April, 25th in village church Nikolsky slobodka near Kiev. The honeymoon has passed in Paris where the poetess has got acquainted with artist Amadeo Modigliani who has embodied its shape in a pencil portrait. Leaving Paris, Ahmatova threw in a window of its workshop farewell red flowers.
In the autumn 1910 Ahmatova does attempt to be printed independently and sends verses to «Russian thought» to V.J. Bryusov, asking, whether it is necessary to it to be engaged in poetry. Having received a negative response, the young poetess gives verses to magazines "Gaudeamus", «General magazine», "Apollo" which publish them. At this time it also becomes Ahmatovoi, publishing under this pseudonym a poem «the Old portrait». Its debut with the verses has the same year taken place, and it has met with for the first time from the husband approval of the creativity. The next year Ahmatova has arrived on the Petersburg Female historico-literary courses.
Left in the spring of 1912 the first collection of verses "Evening", despite modest circulation in three hundred copies, has brought Ahmatovoi instant glory. The collection has been let out by "Shop of poets» - association of the poets-akmeistov which secretary have selected Ahmatova.
October, first, 1912 at a couple the son the Lion, the future historian and the geographer, the author of the ethnologic theory is born. The same year Ahmatova gets acquainted with Majakovsky. The poet of which is considered to be most "loud-voiced" in the Russian poetry, enthusiastically responded about the personal lyrics of the poetess: «Verses Ahmatovoi monolitn also will sustain pressure of any voice, not having cracked».
In 1913 on the Higher female Bestuzhevsky courses Ahmatova reads the verses before a populous audience right after performances of the Block already using glory of the known poet: «To us has approached курсистка with the list and has told, that my performance after blokovskogo. I have begged: « Alexander Aleksandrovich, I cannot read after you ». It - reproachfully - in the answer: « Anna Andreevna, we not the tenor ». Performance was shining. Popularity Ahmatovoi becomes dizzy. From it drew portraits, and poetic dedication to it A. Bloka, N. Gumilev, O. Mandelshtama, M. Lozinsky, V. Shilejko, N. Nedobrovo, V. Pjasta, B. Sadovsky and others have made in 1925 the anthology «the Image Ahmatovoi».
Despite popularity, Ahmatova cannot still believe, that its talent is recognised. July, seventeenth, 1914 she writes to the husband: «With bad feeling I wait July« Russian thought ». Most likely, there will make it is necessary me terrible execution Valery» (Valery Bruces meant). But the collection "are accurate" of 1914 brings Ahmatovoi the All-Russia glory and confirms in the literature concept «ahmatovskoi lines».
Gradually its relations with the husband come to naught. Ahmatova still lives at it in Imperial village, for the summer leaving in Gumilevyh Slepnevo's manor in the Tver province (later «the Tver poor earth» will receive reflexion in its creativity). In the autumn of 1914 Nikolay Gumilev leaves on front the volunteer. Anna Andreevna is treated at this time for a tuberculosis in Finland, later in Sevastopol. After divorce with Gumilev in 1918 Ahmatova marries for assiriologa and poet V.K. Shilejko.
During illness on the foreground there is an interest of the poetess to the Russian classics. Pushkin became one of sources of creative pleasure and inspiration for Ahmatovoi. To it belong literary articles - the analysis of its products, and also researches of its biography. In two decades, in days of hushing up of its creativity, Pushkin again becomes a spiritual and material support for . In September, 1917 there is a collection «White flight». According to the critic. M. Ejhenbauma, it is penetrated «by sensation of private life as lives national, historical», that well transferred mood of an epoch and the relation of the poetess to the present: she has not left the native land, feeling responsibility for its destiny.
1921 has passed a heavy gait on a life of the poetess. In February it presides over evening of memory of Pushkin where the Block with speech «About a high aspiration of a poet» acts and on which there is N.S. Gumilev. At night from the third Gumilev for August, fourth arrest, three days the Block later dies, in two weeks Gumilev shoot. Then leaves Ahmatova with Shileiko. In a counterbalance of tragedy of private life which it then still will mourn in "Requiem", this year the poetess lets out two collections, "Plantain" (in April, even before tragical events) and «Anno Domini» - in October; in October it comes back to the vigorous activity, participates in literary evenings, in work of the literary organisations, is published in the periodical press. In January 1922 Ahmatova gets acquainted with Pasternak, hardly later – with Bulgakov.
In the twentieth years there are two books about Ahmatovoi, behind V. Vinogradova and B. Ejhenbauma's authorship. The second book could play a fatal role in destiny of the poetess. The literary encyclopaedia of these years has given description Ahmatovoi in its own lines taken out of context: «not that the nun, not that the loose woman», - taken together with the deformed analysis from book Eihenbaum. In 1924 new verses Ahmatovoi are published last time before a break. It exclude from the Union of writers. New flash of a tuberculosis has resulted it in sanatorium of Tsarskoe Selo where it is treated together with wife Mandelshtama.
In the end of 1922 for one and a half decades Ahmatova links the life with critic N.N. Puninym. Having moved in 1926 in a garden wing of the Sheremetevsky palace - the Gushing House, it continues to happen in the Marble palace at Shileiko, caring about it and about its Pouninem. In the same apartment of the Gushing House together with P continued to live and its first wife Anna Arens with their small daughter Ирой. When Arens left for work, Ahmatova looked after the child. Atmosphere in the house was strained. These years Ahmatova helped Punin with its work in Academy of arts, translating aloud proceedings from French, English and Italian. Thanks to it Ahmatovoi it is possible to achieve that to the Lion, the son shot «the enemy of the people», have allowed to continue education in a grammar school, and then at university.
Not having possibility to print the verses, Ahmatova lost means of subsistence. Rubens's published in 1937 the translation of letters, has brought to it the earnings first for many years. At an abject poverty the main line of Ahmatovsky shape wonderfully remained: carstvennost, deprived of arrogance, but full of advantage. L.K. Chukovsky recollected: «Has come - in an old coat, in the faded flattened out hat, in rough stockings. Statnay, fine, as always». Remained both character, and desire to help people. So, in the late thirties in the neighbourhood with Ahmatovoi a vein the young woman with two little boys. In the afternoon when it was on work, Ahmatova looked after children.
In 1935 have been arrested son Ahmatovoj the Lion Gumilev and Punin, and shortly before they be its good friend poet Mandelshtam. After written reference Ahmatovoi to Stalin the son and Punina have released, but in 1938 of the Lion have again arrested and have sentenced to execution. Only the subsequent repressirovanie executioners has rescued it from sentence execution. Experiences of these painful years have made a cycle "Requiem" which Ahmatova two decades did not dare to write down. Verses were remembered fragments by friends and relatives. Chukovsky recollects, how Ahmatova in the Gushing house, silently having specified to eyes on a ceiling and walls and loudly speaking about trifles, wrote it on leaves new verses from "Requiem" and at once burnt them over an ashtray.
In 1939 after Stalin's semiinterested remark dare to publish its collection «From six books», acceptable selection including along with the past by old verses and new compositions. Pasternak wrote Ahmatovoi, once again laying in hospital, that turns behind its book were stretched on two streets. Soon the book has got under an interdiction and has been withdrawn from libraries.
To the first months of Great Patriotic War Ahmatova writes poster poems. Under the order of the authorities it evacuate from Leningrad till the first blockade winter, and a half a year she spends two in Tashkent. Writes many verses, works over «the Poem without the hero», the epos about Petersburg the beginnings of the century.
In the first post-war years Ahmatova attracts on itself Stalin's who has learnt about visit to it of English historian I.Berlina anger. Central Committee VKP decision «About magazines" Stars "and "Leningrad" for 1946 has been directed against Ahmatovoi and Zoshenko. There was an interdiction for publications. The exception has been made in 1950 when Ahmatova has written verses by an anniversary Stalin in desperate attempt to help the son arrested once again.
Last decade lives Ahmatovoi its verses have gradually come to the new reader. In 1965 the total collection "Flight of time" is published. On a decline of days Ahmatovoi it was allowed to accept the Italian literary award Etna-Taormina in 1964 and a rank of the honourable doctor of the Oxford university in 1965. On March, 5th, 1966 in Domodedovo Anna Andreevna Ahmatova has died. Over it read the burial service in the Sea cathedral.
Difficult, reaching thirst of madness not to feel a pain, a life. And, nevertheless, a result of all sufferings and an essence of all existence Ahmatova has expressed one line of the autobiography: «I did not cease to write verses». «For me in them - my communication with time, with a new life of my people. When I wrote them, I lived those rhythms which sounded in heroic history of my country. I am happy, that the vein these years and saw events which was not equal».
Anna Andreevny Ahmatovoj's poetry
Anna Andreevna Ahmatova created during very difficult time, time of accidents and social shocks, revolutions and wars. To poets in Russia during that rough epoch when people forgot, that such freedom, often it was necessary to choose between free creativity and a life.
But, despite all these circumstances, poets still continued to work wonders: wonderful lines and stanzas were created.
Source of inspiration for Ahmatovoi steels the Native land, Russia scolded, but from it become even more close and rodnee. Anna Ahmatova could not leave in emigration as she knew, that only in Russia it what exactly in Russia its poetry is necessary can create.
But let's recollect the beginning of a way of the poetess. Its first verses have appeared in Russia in 1911 in magazine "Apollo", and next year there was also a poetic collection "Evening". Almost at once Ahmatova it has been put by critics abreast the greatest Russian poets. All world early, and in much and late lyrics Ahmatovoj has been connected with Alexander Blokom. The muse of the Block has appeared married muse Ahmatovoi. The hero blokovskoi poetry was the most considerable and characteristic "man's" hero of an epoch whereas the heroine of poetry Ahmatovoi was the representative of a "female" epoch. From images of the Block there is a hero ahmatovskoi lyric poets. Ahmatova in the verses is in an infinite variety of female destinies: mistresses and wives, the widow and mother changing and left. Ahmatova has shown in art difficult history of female character of a critical epoch, its sources, ломки, new formation. That is why in 1921, during a drama time of the and general life, Ahmatova has managed to write updatings of a line amazing with spirit:
All is plundered, betrayed, sold,
Black death the wing flashed,
All hungry melancholy it is eaten,
Why to us it became light?
So in a sense Ahmatova was also the revolutionary poet. But it always remained the poet traditional, put under a banner of Russian classics, first of all Pushkin. Development of the Pushkin world proceeded all life.
There is a centre which as though reduces to itself all other world of poetry, it appears the basic nerve, idea and a principle. It is love. The elements of female soul inevitably should begin with such statement of in love. In one of poems Ahmatova named love «the fifth season». The feeling, in itself sharp and extraordinary, receives an additional sharpness, being shown in limiting crisis expression - launch or the falling, the first meeting or the made rupture, danger of death or deadly melancholy therefore Ahmatova so gravitates to a lyrical short story with unexpected, is often whimsical-whimsical end of a psychological plot and to необычностям a lyrical ballad, horrible and mysterious.
Usually its verses - or the drama beginning, or only its culmination, or even more often the ending and the termination. Here again she leant against a wide experience Russian any more only poetry, but also prose:
Glory to you, a hopeless pain,
The grey-eyed king has died yesterday.
And behind a window rustle a poplar:
Is not present on the earth of your king.
Verses Ahmatovoi bear special elements of love-pity:
About is not present, I not loved you,
Scorched delightful fire,
So explain, what force
In sad your name.
The world of poetry Ahmatovoi - the world tragical. Motives of a trouble, tragedy, sound in poems "Slander", "Last", «In 23 years» and others.
In days of reprisals, the hardest tests when her husband will shoot, and the son will appear in prison, creativity becomes unique rescue, «last freedom». The muse has not left the poet, and she has written great "Requiem". Thus, in creativity Ahmatovoi the life was reflected; creativity was her life.
The native earth.
Not with those I who has thrown the earth
On worry to enemies.
I shall not accept their rough flattery,
I of the will not give songs to them.
But the exile is eternally pity to me,
As the prisoner, as the patient.
Your road, the wanderer is dark,
As wormwood bread the stranger smells.
And here, in the deaf person to the child of a fire
The youth rest ruining,
We uniform blow
Have not rejected from itself.
Also we know, that in an estimation late
Each hour will be justified...
But in the world there are no people more ruthlessly,
More haughty and easier us.
The analysis of poem Ahmatovoi «Native earth».
Late Anna Andreevna Ahmatova leaves a genre of "a love diary”, a genre in which she did not know contenders and which it has left, maybe, even with some fear and ogladkoi, and passes to meditations about a history role. Ahmatova has written about A.S. Pushkin: «It does not become isolated from the world, and goes to the world». It was also its road - to the world, to sensation of a generality with it.
Meditations about destiny of the poet lead to meditations about destiny of Russia, the world.
In the beginning of a poem of Anna Andreevny Ahmatovoj «the Native earth» two final lines of the poem composed most Ahmatovoi in postrevolution years are taken out. And it begins so:
«Not with those I who has thrown the earth
On worries to enemies ».
Ahmatova has not wished then to adjoin number of emigrants though many of its friends have appeared abroad. The decision to remain in the Soviet Russia was not neither the compromise with the Soviet people, nor the consent with the course chosen by it. Business in other. Ahmatova felt, that only having shared lot with own people, it can remain as the person and as the poet. And this presentiment has appeared prophetic. In the thirtieth - the sixtieth years its poetic voice has got unexpected force and power. Having incorporated all pain of time, its verses have towered over it and became expression of universal sufferings. A poem «the Native earth» brings an original result to the relation of the poet to the native land. The name has double sense. The "Earth" is and the country with people occupying it and with the history, and simply soil on which people go. Ahmatova as though returns to value the lost unity. It allows it to enter into a poem remarkable images: « Dirt on galoshes "," a crunch on a teeth », - receiving metaphorical loading. Concerning Anna Ahmatovoj to the native earth is not present sentimentality sides. The first quatrain is constructed on negation of those actions which can be connected with patriotism display:
«In treasured ладанах we do not carry on a breast,
About it verses navzred it is not composed … ».
These actions seem it unworthy: in them there is no sober, courageous sight at Russia. Anna Ahmatova does not perceive the of the country as «promised paradise» - too many in domestic history testifies to the tragical parties of Russian life. But is not present here and insults for those actions which the native earth «brings living on it». There is a proud humility to that share which it represents us. In this humility, however, there is no call. Moreover, in it is not present and the realised choice. And in it is weakness of patriotism Ahmatovoi. The love to Russia is not for it a result of the passed spiritual way as it was at Lermontov or the Block; this love is given it initially. Its patriotic feeling is absorbed with parent milk and consequently cannot be subjected any rationalistic corrective amendments.
Communication with the native earth is felt at all on spiritual, and at physical level: the earth represents an integral part of our person because to all of us is foreordained to merge corporally with it - after death:
«But we lay down in it and we become it,
Because also we call so freely - the ».
In a poem three sections that is underlined and graphically are allocated.
First eight lines are constructed, as a chain of parallel negative designs. The ends of phrases coincide with the ends of lines that creates the measured "persevering" information which is underlined by rhythmics of an iambic pentameter.
After that the quatrain written trehstopnem anapestom follows. Change of the sizes throughout one poem - the phenomenon rare enough in poetry. In this case this rhythmic fault serves for opposition to a stream of negations, the statement for how by the collective lyrical hero the native earth all the same is perceived. The statement it has lowered enough character that amplifies anaforicheskim repetition:
«Yes, for us it is a dirt on galoshes,
Yes, for us it is a crunch on a teeth … ».
And, at last, in the ending trehstopnei anapest it is replaced by the tetrameter. Such fault of metre gives to two last lines of width of poetic breath which find a support in infinite depth of the prisoner in them of sense.
Anna Andreevny Ahmatovoj's poetry «ate - even in initial verses - feeling of the native land, a pain about the native land, and this theme sounded in its poetry all more loudly
… About what she wrote last years, always in its verses the persistent thought about historical destinies of the country with which it is connected by all roots of the of a being » was felt. (K. Chukovsky)
Anna Andreevna Ahmatova has created surprising lyrical system in Russian poetry, having connected the creativity new poetry of 20 centuries with great poetry of 19 centuries.
Poetry Ahmatovoi represents as if the novel sated with the most thin psychologism.
In verses Ahmatovoi the life, which essence in its first books is developed and makes love. And when it leaves the person, leaves to stop it fair pangs of conscience cannot even: «In an illness sad washing the flesh, And free spirit already pochiet pines is serene». Only it is seeming serenity, it is devastating, generating sad comprehension, that in the house left by love "not absolutely safely".
Ahmatova did not aspire to cause in the reader sympathy, and furthermore - pity: the heroine of its verses does not require it.
For Ahmatovoi art is capable to incorporate the world and by that to do it more richly, and it defines its effective force, a place and a role of the artist in a life of people.
The list of the used literature
1 Good. Д.Д, Timothies. Л.И, Leontev. А.А the children's encyclopaedia volume 11 language and the literature, 1976г.
2 Life Ahmatovoi 1987г.