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: Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

: Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
:
: 14:50:40 19 2010
: 22 : 2 : 0 : 0 :    

Vldimir Ilyich Lnin

(ssy)

In ll rligins nt nly th hly mn, but ls his ncstrs r ndwd with xtrrdinry pity. In just th sm wy, th Stlinist lgnd mkrs ttributd rvlutinry cnvictins nt nly t Lnin frm his rly childhd, but ls t his prnts. 602-pg fficil bigrphy f Lnin issud undr th uspics f th Institut f Mrxism-Lninism nd publishd in Mscw in 1960 (Vldimir Ilyich Lnin, Bigrfii) dscribd Lnins fthr s prgrssiv, rdicl ductinlist, nd his hm in Simbirsk s srt f rvlutinry club. Th tn ws st by lxndr (Lnins ldr brthr), whil Vldimir ls prticiptd frquntly in th discussin nd with grt succss.

ll this is nnsns. Lnins fthr, Ily Niklvich Ulynv, ws nt prgrssiv ductinlist. In 1869, h ws ppintd t th pst f Inspctr f Schls in th smll Vlg twn f Simbirsk. In 1874, h ws prmtd t th psitin f Dirctr f Schls fr th ntir prvinc. H ws nw n ctul Stt Cuncilr, dcrtd with th rdr f Stnislv, first clss, nd rfrrd t s His xcllnc. This md him high-rnking nblmn, furth in tbl f furtn rnks, with hrditry sttus.

Ths tw dts in his fthrs ris1869 nd 1874r significnt. Lnin singls thm ut in n rticl writtn in 1901, trcing th histry f th tsrist struggl ginst lcl gvrnmnt (th Zmstv), ntitld Th prscutrs f th Zmstv nd th Hnnibls f librlism1 s bing prcisly th yrs in which th tsrist burucrcy ctd ginst ths lcl rgns f slf-gvrnmnt nd itslf tk vr th suprvisin f public ductin. Ily Niklvichs stnding in th ministry f ductin, nd his stdy ris up th hirrchicl lddr, smhw d nt fit th img f rvlutinry, r vn f rdicl.

Lnin nc rclld hw, whn lxndr II ws ssssintd in 1881, his fthr sdly buttnd his fficils unifrm nd wnt t Simbirsk cthdrl t murn th utcrt. H ws dvut nd prcticing Grk rthdx Christin t th nd f his lif, nd n unqustining supprt f th tsrist utcrcy. Thr is, f curs, n rsn t xpct th fthr f rvlutinry t b rvlutinry himslf.

Th cult buildrs wnt vn furthr, nd ndwd Lnin himslf with suprhumn ttributs. H cms t lif fully quippd, Mrxist nd rvlutinry prcticlly frm childhd. nd frm his bld hd springs fully fldgd th prty tht is dstind t ld nd shp th wrking clss in rvlutin! Th rlity ws vry diffrnt. It tk mnths, in fct yrs, f studying nd thinking fr th yung Lnin t bcm Mrxist; first h hd t brk with th cnsrvtiv viws f his fthr, nd thn with th Nrdnik stnd f his ldr brthr.

n My 8, 1887, lxndr Ilyich Ulynv, Lnins ldr brthr, ws hngd fr pltting th ssssintin f th tsr. This ws trribl shck fr th yung Vldimir, wh ws 17 yrs ld t th tim. H hd nt suspctd tht his brthr ws intrstd in plitics. lxndr ws rticnt, intrspctiv, lwys mditting nd sd. H cncld his pliticl ids frm vryn in th fmily, s tht vn his sistr nn, tw yrs his snir, wh ws with him in Ptrsburg whil h ws invlvd in th ssssintin plt, knw nthing t ll but his plitics. Sm yrs ftr th vnt, in 1893, th Scil Dmcrt Llynts qustind Lnin but th plt. Lnin nswrd: Fr m s wll s fr th whl fmily th prticiptin f my brthr in th 1st f Mrch ffir cm s cmplt surpris.2

Th Ulynv fmily ws cls nd thir prsnl rltins vry wrm. It ws in rdr t spr thm tht lxndr kpt scrt his pliticl invlvmnt. H ws n xtrmly fin prsn, vry much lik his mthr, th sm rr cmbintin, writs nn, f xtrrdinry firmnss nd srnity with wndrful snsitivity, tndrnss nd firnss: but h ws mr ustr nd singl-mindd, nd vn mr curgus.

Vldimir, fur yrs yungr thn lxndr, hd lwys trid t mult his brthr. Whn skd whthr crl shuld b tn with buttr r with milk, h rplid, Lik Ssh. H wntd t d vrything lik Sshxcpt fllw his plitics. Whn, in th summr f 1886, lxndr Ulynv rturnd frm St. Ptrsburg t spnd th univrsity vctin with his fmily, h brught with him svrl bks n cnmics, including Mrxs Cpitl. ccrding t nns mmirs, Vldimir did nt vn lk t, lt ln rd, ths bks blnging t his brthr, with whm h ws shring rm. t tht tim, sh rprts, h shwd n intrst t ll in plitics.3

Th xcutin f lxndr must nt nly hv hd dp, prmnnt ffct n Vldimir, but ls prbbly prsntd him with tw ltrntivs fr himslf: ithr t fllw in th ftstps f his mrtyrd brthr, bcm Nrdnik nd trrrist; r t flinch frm rvlutinry ctivity. Fr Stlinist lgnd mkrs, ll is simplth dilmm ds nt vn xist. Th stry gs tht, n rciving th nws f his brthrs xcutin, Vldimir crid ut: N, w will nt fllw tht rd. Tht is nt th rd t tk.4

This is suppsd t b th rctin f yung mn f 17, wh hd brkn with rligin nly fw mnths rlir, wh did nt yt knw th nm f Mrx, wh hd nt rd singl illgl bk, nd knw nthing f th histry f th Russin rvlutinry mvmnt!

His bigrphr Trtsky irniclly sks t whm Vldimir ddrssd ths wis wrds. bviusly nt t his fthr, wh hd did yr bfr. Nr t lxndr, wh hd just prishd n th scffld. Nr t his sistr nn, wh ws in prisn. Nr t his mthr, wh hd gn t St. Ptrsburg t bg n ministr ftr nthr t sv hr sn. vidntly, writs Trtsky, Vldimir cnfidd his rvltins s tcticin t Dimitri, wh ws 13, nd Mri, wh ws 9!

If Lnin hd md up his mind in Mrch 1887 t fllw in Sshs ftstps, r t tk nthr pth f rvlutinry struggl, r t vid rvlutinry plitics ltgthr, his bhvir in th nxt six yrs wuld b incmprhnsibl. H did nt invlv himslf in ny pliticl ctivitis; instd, h studid.

t th nd f Jun 1887, th Ulynv fmily mvd t Kzn, whr Lnin strtd his lw studis t th univrsity. Hwvr, this undrtking ws cut shrt, s n Dcmbr 4, h tk prt in studnt dmnstrtin, nd lthugh h did nt ply n imprtnt rl, ftr night in th plic sttin, h ws xplld frm th univrsity nd frm th city f Kzn. Th rsn ws simply tht h ws th brthr f th thr Ulynv. Vldimir nd th rst f th fmily mvd t Kkushkin, sm 30 mils frm Kzn, whr his mthr hd n stt.

In h utumn f 1888, th ntir Ulynv fmily, xcpt nn, wh hd bn rrstd in Mrch 1887, whn visiting lxndrs rm, ws llwd t tk up rsidnc nc gin in Kzn. Nw Vldimir ntrd scilist circl f which vry littl is knwn. It ws md up f fw studnts wh rd gd bks tgthr nd xchngd ids but wht thy rd. Th mst imprtnt circl in Kzn ws th n ld by N.. Fdsv, wh vn t tht tim ws Mrxist. ccrding t Mxim Grky, wh livd n th Vlg in ths yrs nd mvd in rdicl circls, Fdsv prclimd his supprt fr Plkhnvs first imprtnt Mrxist trct, ur Diffrncs, s rly s 1887. Th Fdsv grup pssssd smll illgl librry nd vn n undrgrund prss. Vldimir, whil in Kzn, cm int cntct with sm f its lss imprtnt mmbrs.

In July 1889, widsprd rrsts tk plc in Kzn. Nt nly wr Fdsv nd his circl sizd, but ls mmbrs f th circl t which Vldimir blngd. Hwvr, h ws frtuntly nt rrstd himslf, th Ulynv fmily hving mvd ut f twn n My 3, t th villg f lkyvk, nr Smr. n ctbr 11, thy mvd gin, t th twn f Smr itslf. Hr Vldimir styd until th nd f ugust 1893, whn h mvd t Ptrsburg. Th fct tht Lnin ws willing t spnd fur yrs in th dd-nd twn f Smr is prf nugh tht h ws nt yt rdy t cmmit himslf t ctiv plitics, tht h ws still studying nd trying t dcid which dirctin t tk. Smr hd lmst n industry, nd thrfr virtully n industril wrking clss. Nr, unlik Kzn, did it hv univrsity, nd cnsquntly, thr wr n studnts. Thus thr ws nithr wrkr nr studnt unrst in th twn.

Lnin ndd ths yrs in rdr t mk up his mind whthr t fllw in Sshs ftstps, nd, if nt, wht pth t tk. N dubt th yung mn ws ttrctd t Nrdism, whtvr th Stlinist lgnd mkrs sy. n f his fllw studnts, rrstd with Vldimir in Kzn in Dcmbr 1887, dscribs hw mst f th rrstd studnts xchngd lighthrtd bntr. t n pint smn turnd t Ulynv, wh ws sitting prt lst in thught, nd skd wht h intndd t d ftr his rls. Ulynv rplid: Wht is thr fr m t think but?... My rd hs bn pvd by my ldr brthr.5

In Smr, Lnin sught ut vtrns f th trrrist undrgrund, nd qustind thm clsly n thir cnspirtril tchniqus. In this wy, h cquird knwldg tht h ltr put t us in rgnizing th Blshvik Prty. Bfr th Stlinist myth mchin strtd wrking, quit lt f vidnc ws prducd t shw tht in his yuth Lnin ws undr Nrdnik influnc. n witnss t this ffct ws V.V. drtsky, th futur dirctr f th Mrx-ngls-Lnin Institut. ccrding t him, in 1905, Lnin tld him tht h ws vry much influncd by Nrdnik ids. H dmittd tht, in 1888, h hd thught vry highly f th Nrdnik trrrist mvmnt, nd tht it tk quit tim fr him t fr himslf frm ths ids. During his lst yrs in Smr, 189293, Lnin ws lrdy Mrxist, lthugh h still rtind trits sscitd with Nrdny Vly (.g., spcil ttitud twrd trrrism).6

Mny yrs ltr, in Wht Is t B Dn? (1902), Lnin wrt:

Mny f thm [Russin Scil Dmcrts] hd bgun thir rvlutinry thinking s dhrnts f Nrdny Vly. Nrly ll hd in thir rly yuth nthusisticlly wrshippd th trrrist hrs. It rquird struggl t bndn th cptivting imprssins f ths hric trditins, nd th struggl ws ccmpnid by th brking ff f prsnl rltins with ppl wh wr dtrmind t rmin lyl t th Nrdny Vly nd fr whm th yung Scil Dmcrts hd prfund rspct.7

Whn Krupsky citd this pssg in hr mmirs, sh ddd tht it rprsntd pic f Lnins utbigrphy.

Llynts, qutd bv, wh knw Lnin wll in Smr, dtctd in him in Mrch 1893 crtin sympthis fr Nrdny Vly trrr, nd nts tht this prpnsity cusd cnflict btwn th tw f thm. Whn, in th utumn f 1893, Lnin sught ntry int circl f St. Ptrsburg Scil Dmcrts, h ws xmind thrughly n th qustin f trrrism nd fund t fvrbly dispsd twrd it.8

Vldimir ndd t mk lng, thrugh study, nt nly bcus Nrdism hd vry dp rts, but ls bcus, s w shll s ltr, th dmrctin lins btwn Nrdism nd Mrxism wr nt clrly dfind fr rdicl yuth t th tim. nthr rsn ws tht th ids f Russin Mrxism hd nt yt tkn n flsh nd bld in n ctiv industril wrking-clss mvmnt. Thy wr still th prrgtiv f fw isltd intllctuls.

Vldimirs min txtbks wr th first nd scnd vlums f Mrxs Cpitl. (Th third vlum hd nt yt bn publishd.) H studid ths with utmst intnsity thrughut his ltr lif, finding in thm guidnc fr his thinking, nd n vr nw surc f ids. H lrnd, s h himslf sid ltr, t cnfr with Mrx. During th sm prid, h studid Russin rdicl jurnlism f th 1860s nd 1870s, s tht his knwldg f Nrdism ws vry xtnsiv. H md gd us f this in ltr yrs, in his dbts with th Nrdniks nd in his first ffrts s writr vr th yrs 189399. s h ltr rclld, h nvr gin in his lif rd s much s during th yrs 188893.9

H ls md srius study f sttisticl mtril n th Russin ntinl cnmy, nd wrt his first indpndnt mngrphs imd t thrwing light n th Russin cnmic nd scil scn. Frm th rcrds f th Smr librry fr 1893, singl yr fr which thy hv ccidntlly bn prsrvd, it my b sn tht Vldimir did nt miss ny rlvnt publictins, whthr fficil sttisticl cmpiltins r cnmic studis by th Nrdniks.10

Lnin ndd yrs f study in rdr t mk up his mind in rltin t Nrdism nd Mrxism. Th trgdy f his brthr struck him t dply t llw fr quick dcisin. H strtd studying Mrxs Cpitl sm tim in 1889. This in itslf ds nt mn tht h dcidd t turn his bck n Nrdism. s w shll s, th Nrdniks studid Mrx. It sms tht it ws nly in 1891 tht h bcm cquintd with Plkhnvs wrks, withut which n culd nt hv rrivd t Scil Dmcrtic psitins, s Trtsky rightly sys.11 In nswring qustinnir in 1919, Lnin md it clr tht h bcm Scil Dmcrt ( synnym t tht tim fr Mrxist) in 1893.12 In 1920, nswring nthr qustinnir n whn h hd strtd t tk prt in th rvlutinry mvmnt, h wrt: 189293.13

Th Stlinist lgnd, dscribing hw yung Vldimir dcidd n th crrct pth immditly ftr hring th nws f his brthrs ft, is nt nly psychlgiclly stupid, but is ls n insult t Lnins intllctul nd mtinl intgrity. In this lgnd h pprs s frkrigid, dry, dd, incpbl f chng.

His lng invstigtin f Nrdism ws ncssry fr him t b bl t vid th trgdy f his brthr, wh, n th v f th plt, ws still in dubt whthr h hd tkn th right pth.

In th lst wk f th yr [1886] h [Ssh] still rgud ginst th plt, sying tht it ws bsurd, nd vn suicidl, t ngg in ny pliticl ctivity bfr n hd clrifid th principls n which it shuld b bsd. H flt th nd fr mr thrticl wrk nd fr mr prcis dfinitin f ims nd mns. But thy nswrd his scrupls with tlling rprch: r w ging t sit bck, rms fldd, whil ur cllgus nd frinds r victimizd nd whil th ntin t lrg is bing pprssd nd stultifid? T ngg nw, thy sid, in th lbrtin f thrticl principls wuld munt t surrndr. ny philistin cn thrizth rvlutinry hs t fight. This ws, f curs, th vic f inxprinc nd imptinc, th vic f yuth. lxndrs sns f rvlutinry hnr ws snsitiv t it, nd, ginst his bttr knwldg, h yildd: N, h wuld nt sit bck, his rms fldd.14

Th ids f vry g r clsly cnnctd with ths f th prcding n. Lnins stt f mind in 1887 cnnt b undrstd withut tking ccunt f th ids f his ldr brthr. His intllctul dvlpmnt must b sn s flwing frm nd rltd t th Nrdnik hritg. In rdr t cm t grips with Nrdism nd t dcid his ttitud t it, Lnin, lik ny srius scintist, culd nt rly n th pinins f thrs, but hd t study th subjct t first hnd.

In fct, h ndd much lngr prid f study thn th nxt gnrtin f Russin Mrxists, such s Trtsky. First f ll, f curs, Trtsky hd nt hd th trumtic xprinc f hving brthr hngd fr Nrdnik trrrism. Scndly, bing nin yrs yungr thn Lnin, h cm int cntct with rvlutinry plitics much ltr, in 1896, whn th Mrxists wr lrdy prcticlly invlvd in striks, vn mss striks, f wrkrs. This ws nt th cs in 1887, whn th Mrxist mvmnt cnsistd lmst ntirly f fur r fiv émigrés, with hndful f studnts supprting thm hr nd thr. But vn Trtsky hd t cntnd with Nrdnik ids. Th first grup h jind in Niklyv ws md up f ppl wh cnsidrd thmslvs Nrdniks. Thy hd hzy ntin f Mrxism. nly n mmbr f th circl, yung wmn nmd lxndr Sklvsky, hrslf th dughtr f Nrdnik, climd t b Mrxist. It tk fw mnths f cntrvrsy in th circl fr Trtsky, wh in th bginning sidd with th Nrdniks, t b cnvrtd by lxndr Sklvsky t Mrxism. (H ltr mrrid hr nd thy hd tw childrn; th ft f ll thr ws trgiclly bund up with Trtskys.)

It is hrd t undrstnd why Vldimir Ilyich Ulynv, this srius nds th futur ws t shwctiv mn, vidd ny pliticl cmmitmnt fr fiv r six yrs. T xplin why Lnin witd, w nd t grsp th ntur f Nrdism, th intrrltin f its ids nd ths f Mrxism, nd th dp pssins tht th hrism f th Nrdniks risd in th hrts f th yung rdicls f th tim. n hs ls t undrstnd th idlgicl ltrntiv t Nrdism tht ws dvlpd t th tim by Plkhnv, th fthr f Russin Mrxism. Finlly, th cmmitmnt f individulsin ur cs, tht f Vldimiris ffctd nt nly by pur rsn, but ls by th intrrltin f ids nd ctins. Hnc w nd t grsp th ctul stt f th wrking-clss mvmnt t th timhw mny striks tk plc, nd whthr th Mrxists r th Nrdniks hd ny influnc in thm, nd s n. T dl dqutly with ll this wuld dmnd fr mr spc thn w hv t ur dispsl. Hwvr, withut n undrstnding f th intllctul nd pliticl struggls f th prid, Lnins dvlpmnt is nt cmprhnsibl. His rts wr dp in th Russin rvlutinry trditin f th prcding tw gnrtins f Nrdism, trditin culminting fr him in th mrtyrdm f lxndr. n xcursin int Nrdism nd Russin Mrxism is thrfr unvidbl. Th prsnl vlutin f Vldimir ws clsly linkd with th vlutin f th Russin rvlutinry intlligntsi nd th thin lyr f rvlutinry wrkrs. His pliticl bigrphy is mrgd with th histry f th mvmnt.

Th Nrdniks

Nrdism ws rdicl mvmnt tht bgn in th middl f th 19th cntury. It ws brn t th tim f th Crimn Wr nd th blitin f srfdm (1861), gind influnc nd rnwn during th sixtis nd svntis, nd rchd its znith with th ssssintin f Tsr lxndr II (1881), ftr which it rpidly dclind. Hwvr, it rs gin ut f its shs n mr thn n ccsin.

Th fundtins f th mvmnt hd bn lid in th fiftis nd sixtis by Hrzn. H blivd bv ll tht th psntry in Russi wuld b th fundtin fr scilism. Th futur in Russi blngs t th psnt, just s in Frnc it blngs t th wrkmn, Hrzn wrt t th Frnch histrin Michlt in 1851.

H blivd tht th cllctivly wnd cmmunth bshchinwhich hd survivd in Russi, wuld frm th fundtin f scilism, rthr thn th publicly wnd fctry. Cpitlist dvlpmnt culd b vidd in Russi, Hrzn rgud. H wrt t Mzzini, I bliv tht thr cn b n rvlutin in Russi xcpt fr psnt wr, nd h rfrrd t mlin Pugchv, th ldr f th psnt wr f 177375. This rvlutin ws t strik t th glcil dsptism f Ptrsburg. It wuld dstry th stt. It wuld rtin th pridicl rdistributin f th lnd trditinl in villg Russi, thus nsuring ginst th frmtin f prltrit nd hungr. It wuld dvlp intrnl slf-dministrtin. Why shuld Russi nw ls hr rurl cmmun, sinc it hs bn prsrvd thrughut th prid f hr pliticl dvlpmnt, sinc it hs bn hld intct undr th wighty yk f Muscvit tsrism, s wll s undr th urpn styl utcrcy f th mprrs ?

But ws Russi cpbl f chiving such rvlutin? Tw fctrs ncurgd n ffirmtiv nswr t his qustin: th strngth f th Russin psnt, wh dspit succssin f dsptisms hd rtind his humnity, tgthr with fling f indpndnc nd rmtnss frm uthrity; nd bv ll th spiritul nd intllctul lif f mdrn Russi.15 Wht ws ndd, Hrzn rgud, wr rvlutinris wh wuld ddict thmslvs t th ppl. In n ppl writtn t studnts in 1861, h sid: T th ppl!... Tht is yur plc. Prv tht ut f yu will cm nt clrks, but sldirs f th Russin ppl.

N.G. Chrnyshvsky cm t mr xtrm cnclusins thn Hrzn. Th histrin f Nrdism, Frnc Vnturi, hs dscribd th rltin btwn Hrzn nd Chrnyshvsky in this wy: Hrzn crtd Ppulism; Chrnyshvsky ws its pliticin. H prvidd Ppulism with its mst slid cntnt, nd nt nly gv it ids but inspird its min curs f ctin by his brillint publicizing ctivitis undrtkn btwn 1853 nd 1862.16

In July 1848, Chrnyshvsky wrt in his diry tht h ws mr nd mr bing cnvincd by th ids f th scilists. lrdy h flt th nd t trnslt ths cnvictins int Russin. Wht culd th wrds rvlutin nd scilism mn in his wn cuntry? H nswrd tht th nly hp ly in psnt rvlt. Th nly thing tht is lcking is unity btwn th vrius lcl risings.17 lttr t Hrzn, f nnymus uthrship, but crtinly xprssing th viws f Chrnyshvsky nd his frind, N.. Dbrlyubv, clrly put frwrd th cll fr psnt uprising.

Yu r vidntly mistkn but th situtin in Russi. Librl lndwnrs, librl prfssrs, librl writrs, lull yu with hps in th prgrssiv ims f ur Gvrnmnt. Yu must nt frgt vn fr mmnt tht lxndr II will shw his tth, s Nichls I did. Dnt b tkn in by gssip but ur prgrss. W r xctly whr w wr bfr. Dnt b tkn in by hp, nd dnt tk in thrs. N, ur psitin is hrribl, unbrbl, nd nly th psnts xs cn sv us. Nthing prt frm ths xs is f ny us. Yu hv lrdy bn tld this, it sms, nd it is xtrrdinrily tru. Thr is n thr mns f slvtin. Yu did vrything pssibl t hlp pcful slutin f th prblm, but nw yu r chnging yur tun. Lt yur bll sund nt fr pryr but fr th chrg. Summn Russi t rms.18

Chrnyshvsky, lik Hrzn, sw in th bshchin th fundtin fr scilism. But h did nt idliz this institutin, which hd bn inhritd frm ptrirchl tims. It ndd t b rvivifid nd trnsfrmd by Wstrn scilism. Fr Chrnyshvsky, th min nmy ws nt cpitlism but Russin bckwrdnsssitic cnditins f lif, sitic scil structur, sitic rdr, nd his primry im ws th vrthrw f th tsrist pliticl rgim.

In 1860, in Ptrsburg, smll undrgrund rgniztin knwn s Yung Russi ws frmd. Its immdit im ws bldy nd implcbl rvlutin, which shll rdiclly chng th whl fundtin f cntmprry scity, nd its inspirtin ws Chrnyshvsky. In 1862, Chrnyshvsky ws rrstd nd spnt mr thn 18 mnths in th Ptr nd Pul frtrss. Thn h ws snt t d hrd lbr in Sibri, whr h rmind until 1883. H ws thn llwd t liv in strkhn, nd vntully, fw mnths bfr his dth in 1889, t rturn t his ntiv twn f Srtv.

In 186263 Zmly i Vly (Lnd nd Frdm) ws stblishd. This ws ls cllctin f grups md up minly f studnts. Th guiding spirit f th mvmnt, vn ftr his rrst, rmind Chrnyshvsky. n rsult f th frmtin f Zmly i Vly ws ris in trrrist cts ginst th utcrcy. n pril 4, 1866, n ttmpt ws md n th lif f th tsr by th studnt Dimitri Krkzv. H fild nd ws xcutd, but his ws th first ct in rvlutinry drm tht ndd with th vrthrw f tsrism hlf cntury ltr.

Th dcd f th 1860s, which pnd n Fbrury 19, 1861, with th librtin f th srfs, clsd with th slitry cnfinmnt in Ptr nd Pul frtrss f Nchv, n f th grt figurs in th hric gllry f Nrdism. H hd ttmptd t crt tightly cnspirtril scity clld Th Ppls Rvng, which imd t ld psnt uprising. It fild nd n insurrctin tk plc, but Nchvs ffrts wr rwrdd by slitry cnfinmnt in prisn.

scnd wv f th rvlutinry mvmnt pnd t th bginning f th svntis, with cmplt swing f th pndulum wy frm Nchvs cnspirtril mthds (idd by rvulsin ginst Nchvs rgniztin f th murdr f n f his wn cllbrtrs). Instd thr ws mss pilgrimg f intllctuls t th cuntrysid t cnvrt th psntry. Hw widsprd th mvmnt ws n cn gug frm th fct tht, in 1874, 4,000 ppl wr imprisnd, qustind, r t lst hrssd by th plic.19

In tht prid in 1874, clld th md summr, hundrds f thusnds f yung mn nd wmn gv up thir hms, thir richs, hnrs nd fmilis. Thy thrw thmslvs int th mvmnt with jy, n nthusism, fith which n cn fl nly nc in ns lif nd which, nc lst, cn nvr b fund gin. It ws nt yt pliticl mvmnt. Rthr it ws lik rligius mvmnt, with ll th infctius ntur f such mvmnts. Mn wr trying nt just t rch crtin prcticl nd, but ls t stisfy dply flt duty, n spirtin fr mrl prfctin.20

Th Russin psnt turnd ut t b lss rcptiv t scilist ids thn th rvlutinry intllctuls hd bn ld t bliv. Thy fund it vry difficult t cmmunict with th psnts, nd th psnts wr vry suspicius f thm. Thy wr vn frquntly turnd vr t th plic by th vry ppl thy hd cm t srv.

Th Nrdnik mvmnt nw cquird prcticl xprinc, nd s rsult nw plicis hd t b drwn up. If th psnts wr nt rdy t ct, th rvlutinris hd t ct n thir wn. n f th nw ldrs, P.M. Tkchv, writing fw yrs ltr in 1879, spk f th cmplt fisc f ging mng th ppl, nd ddd prudly:

W wr th first t pint ut th invitbility f this fisc; w wr th first...t implr yuth t bndn tht ftl ntirvlutinry pth nd t rturn nc mr t th trditins f dirct rvlutinry wrk nd fighting, cntrlizd rvlutinry rgniztin [i.., t th trditins f th Nchv trnd]. nd urs ws nt vic crying in th wildrnss. Th fighting rgniztin f th rvlutinry frcs, th disrgniztin nd trrriztin f th gvrnmnt uthritis, ths hv bn frm th vry bginning th bsic dmnds f ur prgrm. nd t prsnt ths dmnds hv t lst bgun t b put int prctic...t th prsnt ur nly tsk is t trrriz nd disrgniz gvrnmnt uthrity.21

S, ftr ging t th ppl, th pndulum swung bck t trrrism. n Jnury 24, 1878, slitry yung girl, Vr Zsulich, sht t th hd f th Ptrsburg plic, Gnrl Trpv, wh hd rcntly subjctd prisnr, Bglyubv, t crprl punishmnt. In My, th hd f th gndrmri in Kiv ws ssssintd. In ugust 1879, Krvchinsky killd th chif f th Russin gndrmri. Unlik Vr Zsulich, Krvchinsky ws nt ln. H ws mmbr f Zmly i Vly, which ws by nw vry wll rgnizd nd disciplind grup.

n pril 2, 1879, lxndr Slvv, hving prsnlly infrmd Zmly i Vly f his intntin t ssssint Tsr lxndr II, but withut th supprt f th rgniztin, md th ttmpt nd fild. fw wks ltr n ctiv trrrist rgniztin, Dth r Librty, cnstitutd itslf within Zmly i Vly. n Mrch 1, 1881, it succdd in ssssinting th tsr.

But th hps f th rvlutinris wr bittrly disppintd. Thir ct did nt ld t ppulr uprising, but instd t strngthning f th utcrcy nd t th supprssin f ll rvlutinry ctivitis fr mny yrs. Th suprhumn curg nd mrl frtitud f th trrrists wr nt nugh t vrthrw tsrism.

Th Nrdniks dpt Mrxism

T undrstnd th dvlpmnt f Russin Mrxism, n must grsp th ttitud f th Nrdniks twrd it. In 1848, nd fr yrs ftrwrds, th wrks f Mrx nd ngls culd b imprtd int Russi lglly, bcus, ccrding t th cnsr, thy cnstitutd n bstrct spcultin with n rlvnc t Russi.22 In 1872, Mrxs Cpitl (vl. 1) ws publishd in Russin (mny yrs bfr it ws publishd in Frnch nd nglish). It hd n immdit sl f 3,000 cpis. Th xcutiv cmmitt f Nrdny Vly wrt t Mrx in 1880: Citizn! Th intllctul nd prgrssiv clss in Russi...hs rctd with nthusism t th publictin f yur schlrly wrks. Thy scintificlly rcgniz th bst principls f Russin lif.

Mrxs dscriptin f th trcitis f th primitiv ccumultin f cpitl nd th industril rvlutin in nglnd, f th thry f surplus vlu, his ttck n th cpitlist divisin f lbr nd lintin, his criticism f frml burgis prlimntry dmcrcy, wr intrprtd by th Nrdniks s prving tht vry ffrt shuld b md t prvnt th dvlpmnt f cpitlism in Russi. Hving lrnd frm Mrx but th high pric f cpitlist dvlpmnt, [th Nrdnik] rfusd t py this pric, nd st his hps n th llgd pssibility f rstring th rchic frms f scil lif nd dpting thm t fit th nw cnditins.23

Th fct tht, fr Mrx, cpitlism ws prgrssiv cmprd with fudlism, tht prlimntry dmcrcy, hwvr frml nd limitd, ws stp frwrd in cmprisn with utcrcythis th Nrdniks fild t s. Using thir knwldg f Mrxs Cpitl, Nrdnik cnmists wrt bks prving th pssibility nd ncssity f nncpitlist dvlpmnt in Russi. Th mst riginl f ths cnmists ws V.P. Vrntsv, wh usd th psudnym V.V. In his bk Th Ft f Cpitlism in Russi (1882), h rgud tht Russin cpitlism, bing ltcmr, culd nt find xtrnl mrkts fr its prducts. t th sm tim, its intrnl mrkts wr nt xpnding, but n th cntrry cntrcting, bcus cpitlism ruind th psnts nd rtisns nd rducd thir purchsing pwr. Cpitlism culd nt g bynd th crtin f th smll islnds f mdrn industry ndd t stisfy th wnts f th uppr clsss. It culd nt bcm th dminnt frm f prductin. It culd ruin millins f psnts nd rtisns, but culd nt giv thm mplymnt r bring thm int scilizing prductin. It culd dvlp intnsivly by th xplittin f lbr, but nt xtnsivly by incrsing mplymnt. In th bckwrd cuntris gnrlly, it culd nly b dstructiv prdy f cpitlism, n illgitimt child f histry. T th xtnt tht islnds f cpitlism did xist in Russi, thy wr th rtificil prduct f th stts ffrts.

Whil dpting Mrxism, th Nrdniks wr bsiclly utpin scilists. Sing th Russin msss inrt whil thy thmslvs hld scilism t b dsirbl idl, thy md n rl cusl cnnctin btwn th msss f th prsnt nd th futur. N.K. Mikhilvsky, n f th thrticins f Nrdism, xprssd this dulism by spking f tw kinds f truthsth truth f vrity, i.., wht ctully is, nd th truth f justic, i.., wht ught t b. Th wrld f wht ught t b, th wrld f th tru nd just, hd n cnnctin with th bjctiv curs f histricl dvlpmnt. Mrxs dscriptin f th min chrctristics f th utlk f th utpin scilists f his tim fits th Nrdniks wll. Thir min dfct, Th Cmmunist Mnifst rgus, ws du t th fct tht th prltrit...ffrs t thm th spctcl f clss withut ny histricl inititiv r ny indpndnt pliticl mvmnt, tht thy hd nt yt dptd th stndpint f th clss struggl, nd tht th prltrit xistd fr thm nly in viw f its bing th mst suffring clss.24 n hs nly t substitut th wrd psntry fr prltrit fr this dscriptin t fit th Russin ppulists prfctly. Frm thir utpin psitin rs thir litist cncpt f th rl f th intlligntsith mkr f histry, whs tsk is t shp th inrt, ignrnt msss.

In th sm wy tht n nd th sm rligin cn b prfssd by ppl f diffrnt lvls f cnmic dvlpmnt, ch giving it diffrnt cntnt, s th Mrxism usd by th Nrdnik intlligntsi ws diffrnt frm th Mrxism f wrking-clss mvmnt. Th grtsqu cmbintin f Mrxism nd Nrdism ws xplind by th ging ngls in lttr f Fbrury 26, 1895:

In cuntry lik yurs, whr mdrn lrg-scl industry hs bn grftd n t th primitiv psnt cmmun nd whr, t th sm tim, ll th intrmdit stgs f civiliztin c-xist with ch thr, in cuntry which, in dditin t this, hs bn nclsd by dsptism with n intllctul Chins wll, in th cs f such cuntry n shuld nt wndr t th mrgnc f th mst incrdibl nd bizrr cmbintins f ids.25

n cnnt but gr with . Wlicki, uthr f n imprtnt study f th scil philsphy f th ppulists, whn h writs tht ppulism

ws Russin rctin t Wstrn cpitlism nd, ls, Russin rspns t Wstrn scilism rctin t Wstrn cpitlism nd Wstrn scilism by dmcrtic intlligntsi in bckwrd psnt cuntry t n rly stg f cpitlist dvlpmnt. nd it is quit undrstndbl tht th clssicl Russin Ppulism ws, first f ll, rctin t Mrxismftr ll, Mrx ws by thn th lding figur f urpn scilism nd, t th sm tim, th uthr f th mst uthrittiv bk n th dvlpmnt f cpitlism. It is by n mns n ccidnt tht th bginning f th full-fldgd, clssicl Ppulism cincidd in tim with th first wv f th diffusin f Mrxist ids in Russi. It is nt n xggrtin t sy tht th ncuntr with Mrx ws f prmunt imprtnc fr th frmtin f th Ppulist idlgy, tht withut Mrx it wuld hv bn diffrnt frm wht it ws.26

Withut undrstnding th intimt rltins btwn Nrdism nd Mrxism, n cnnt grsp th grt difficultis fcd by Russin Mrxists n thir wy frwrd frm Nrdism, bstcls tht tk yrs fr Plkhnv, th fthr f Russin Mrxism, t vrcm, which rpprd in th pthwy f his fllwr, Vldimir Ilyich Ulynv.

Th hrism f th Nrdniks

ur sktchy survy f th ids f th Nrdniks in th 1860s nd 1880s is fr frm giving n ccurt pictur f th ntur f Nrdism. Thir ids wr hld with n xtrrdinry pssin, which gv thm th mrl curg nd dtrmintin t fc mny kinds f dngrs nd suffring. Thy wnt by th hundrds t slitry cnfinmnt in th Ptr nd Pul frtrss, t Sibri, vn t th gllws.

n cn find n bttr witnss t th hrism f th Nrdniks thn th mricn writr Grg Knnn, wh strtd ut s thir ppnnt. Sinc Knnn hd publicly cndmnd th trrrists in 1882, th Russin uthritis willingly llwd him t ntr Russi nd visit prisns nd frcd lbr cmps, in th hp tht his ngtiv ttitud twrd th Russin rvlutinris wuld hlp ttrct wrld pinin t th sid f th Russin gvrnmnt. Hwvr, ftr spnding th yrs 188486 in Sibri, Knnn hd this t sy (in lttr qutd by Mrs. Dws in th ugust 1888 issu f th mricn mgzin Th Cntury): Wht I sw nd lrnd in Sibri stirrd m t th vry dpth f my sulpnd t m nw wrld f humn xprincs, nd risd, in sm rspcts, ll my mrl stndrds.

I md th cquintnc f chrctrs s truly hric in muldchrctrs f s high typ s ny utlind in histry, nd sw thm shwing curg, frtitud, slf-scrific nd dvtin t n idl bynd nything f which I culd bliv myslf cpbl. I wnt t Sibri, rgrding th pliticl xils s lt f mntlly unblncd fntics, bmb-thrwrs nd ssssins. Whn I cm wy frm Sibri I kissd ths sm mn gd-by with my rms rund thm nd my ys full f trs.27

Th 1880s wr yrs f trribl rctin. ftr th ssssintin f lxndr II, th cuntry ws lik grvyrd. Thr ws hrdly ny furthr rsistnc. In 1883, Vr Fignr, n f th mst dmirbl figurs n th xcutiv cmmitt f Nrdny Vly, ws rrstd. Th yr ftr, G.. Lptin, wh hd bn in cls tuch with Mrx nd ngls whil brd, rturnd t Ptrsburg t rnw trrrist ctivitis, but ws sn rrstd. With his rrst, numrus ddrsss fll int th hnds f th plic, lding t th liquidtin f th rmnnts f Nrdny Vly.

Th lst issu f th jurnl Nrdny Vly, which cm ut n ctbr 1, 1885, whn th prty itslf n lngr xistd, pintd in blk clrs th mrl f th intllctuls:

Cmplt intllctul disintgrtin, chs f th mst cntrdictry pinins n th mst lmntry qustins f scil lif. n th n hnd, pssimism bth prsnl nd scil, n th thr hnd, sci-rligius mysticism. Thr ws fld f rngds f vry kind. Th mr stblishd strt f th intlligntsi frnkly nnuncd tht thy wr sick nd tird f psnts. Tim t liv fr urslvs! Th fding rdicl nd librl jurnls rvld th dclin f scil intrst.28

nthr dscriptin f th prid cms frm th pn f Rs Luxmburg, writing whil in prisn during th First Wrld Wr:

ftr th murdr f lxndr II prid f rigid hplssnss vrcm th whl f Russi. Th ld rfs [prisns] f lxndr IIIs gvrnmnt cntind th silnc f th grv. Russin scity fll int th grip f hplss rsigntin, fcd s it ws by th nd f ll hps fr pcful rfrm, nd th pprnt filur f ll rvlutinry mvmnts.29

Chrctristic f th tim ws th dfctin f n f th Nrdniks mst imprtnt ldrs, Lv Tikhmirv, wh publishd in Wstrn urp cnfssin clld Why I Csd t b Rvlutinry. (Sn ftrwrds h bcm n f th strngst supprtrs f tsrism.) Lrg numbrs f thr x-rvlutinris fund thir prpht in L Tlsty, wh, whil rjcting th bmintin f tsrism, prchd th dctrin f nnvilnc. Tlstys tching smd t prvid mrl supprt fr th disillusind nd pssiv intlligntsi.

Hwvr, within th gnrl tid f rctin, thr wr smll ddis. Th mst imprtnt ws th plt f Mrch 1887, in which lxndr Ulynv ws cntrl figur. Six ppl tk prt. Thr f thm, including Ulynv, cnsidrd thmslvs dhrnts f Nrdny Vly; thr thrs clld thmslvs Scil Dmcrts. Th distinctin btwn th frmr nd lttr, hwvr, ws nt t ll clr.

lxndr himslf hd rd Mrx diligntly, but h ws still Nrdnik, s is clr frm th prgrm h wrt fr th grup: Prgrm f th Trrrist Fctin f th Prty Nrdny Vly. H ws th min rvlutinry frc nt in th psntry but in th industril wrking clss. Scilism ws ncssry rsult f cpitlist prductin nd th cpitlist clss structur.30 This, hwvr, th Prgrm rgud, did nt rul ut th pssibility f nthr, mr dirct trnsitin t scilism, prvidd tht thr r spcil, fvrbl cnditins in th hbits f th ppl nd in th chrctr f th intlligntsi nd f th gvrnmnt.

Cpitlism ws nt ncssry stg bfr scilism. Cpitlism ws ncssry nly whr th prcss f trnsitin is lft t dvlp spntnusly, if thr is n cnscius intrvntin n th prt f scil grup. Th Prgrm rcgnizd th ncssity f rgnizing nd ducting th wrking clss, but this tsk hd t b dfrrd, s rvlutinry ctivity mng th msss undr th xisting pliticl rgim is lmst impssibl. Th utcrcy hd t b vrthrwn by mns f trrr, s tht th wrking clss culd ntr th pliticl rn.

This pculir clcticism ws n ttmpt t cmbin Nrdism nd Mrxism. s w mntind bv, lxndr ndd tim t srt ut his ids. This h ws nt givn. Lnin tld Llynts in 1893 tht lxndr cnsidrd himslf Mrxist. This ws f curs n xggrtin. lxndrs trgdy ws tht h ws mn f th trnsitin in th prid f trnsitin. In his wrk n Russin scil thught, Ivnv-Rzumnik, dscribing th trnsitinl chrctr f th 1880s, sys: Bfr thm std Nrdnichstv, ftr thm std Mrxism, thmslvs thy rprsntd n idlgicl vid.31

Plkhnv brks with Zmly i Vly

s rsult f th zigzgs in its frtuns, thr ws tug f wr within Zmly i Vly in th yrs 187879 btwn th supprtrs f mss gittinging t th pplnd th supprtrs f trrrism. Th min prpnnt f th first tndncy ws Grgii Vlntinvich Plkhnv.

By ctbr 1879, Zmly i Vly hd csd t xist. Th gittrs crtd sprt rgniztin clld Chrnyi Prdl (Blck Rdistributin). Th nm mnt litrlly n qul distributin f th lnd mng th blck ppl, i.., mng th psnts. Th trrrists dptd th nm Nrdny Vly, which, wing t th dubl mning f th wrd Vly, mnt t n nd th sm tim Ppls Will nd Ppls Frdm.

Chrnyi Prdl ws prcticlly stillbrn. Th rgniztin hd n luck frm th first dy f its crtin, cmplind Dutsch, n f its fundrs, in his mmirs. .V. ptkmn, th chrniclr f Chrnyi Prdl nd n f its lding mmbrs, bgins his ccunt f it with ths dlful wrds: Nt in frtunt tims ws th rgniztin Chrnyi Prdl brn. Gd did nt giv it lif, nd thr mnths ltr, it xpird.32

s rsult f th ctivitis f tritr within th rgniztin, its ldrs, Plkhnv, xlrd, Zsulich, nd Dutsch, wr cmplld t migrt frm Russi n ftr nthr. ftr sris f plic rids, rsulting in th sizur f th grups printing prss nd th rrst f nrly ll its mmbrs wh wr nt ut f th cuntry, th grup prcticlly csd t xist. Nvrthlss, Chrnyi Prdl ws dstind t ply n imprtnt histricl rl. It bcm bridg frm ppulism t Mrxism.

Turning t th wrking clss

mpiriclly, nd withut clr thrticl undrstnding f thir prblm, individuls mng th Nrdniks turnd gin nd gin twrd th industril wrking clss. Withut cnsidrtin f ths smll shts, th grwth f Russin Mrxism cnnt b undrstd.

In 1870, fr th first tim in Russin histry, grup f studnts, ld by N.V. Chikvsky, plntd th sd f wrking-clss rgniztin.33 Thy did this nt bcus thy rgrdd th prltrit s th gnt f scilism, but bcus thy sw in th fctry wrkrs gnts fr sprding th Nrdnik mssg mng th psnts.

Thy thrfr md cntct with ths wh wr lst skilld nd wh wr mst dirctly bund t th lif nd spirit f th cuntrysid. n principl thy lwys chs txtil rthr thn mtl wrkrs, fr thy rcgnizd in thm th rprsnttivs f wht thy cnsidrd t b th rl ppl. .V. Nizvkin, n f thir mst ctiv prpgndists, sid tht th mtl wrkrs hd lrdy bn mrkd by urbn civiliztin. Thy drssd bttr; thy n lngr livd cmmunlly; nd th trditins f th rtl wr dying ut mng thm. Th txtil wrkrs, n th thr hnd...still drssd in cuntry fshin nd rtind th hbits which wr typicl f th villgfrm cmmunl spirit t drunknnss.34

Th Chikvists wr vry fw in numbr.

It is difficult t sy xctly hw mny mmbrs thr wr in th St. Ptrsburg grup f th Chikvists. In 1928, nrly hlf cntury ltr, thr f th survivrs...trid t mk up n xct list f thir cmrds btwn 1871 nd 1874. Thy stimtd grup f 19 in Mscw, 11 in dss, 8 in Kiv, nd sm in Khrkv, rl, Kzn, nd Tul.35

ch Chikvist bgn his pliticl wrk by cntcting smll grup f btwn thr nd fiv wrkrs, whm h tught t rd nd writ. H ls gv thm lssns in ggrphy, histry, physics, nd thr subjcts. Lcturs wr hld n such tpics s th histry f rbllins in Russi, th Intrntinl, th Grmn wrking-clss mvmnt, nd pliticl cnmy (bsd n th wrks f Mrx). librry hd bn st up fr ths wrkrs wh wr rdy t py 2 prcnt f thir wgs twrd its upkp. Unfrtuntly, th Chikvists did nt surviv plic prscutin. In 1873, thy csd t xist s n rgnizd bdy.

Whil th Chikvists wr t wrk in St. Ptrsburg, n vn mr imprtnt nd fr mr prltrin grup ws stblishd in dss. It ws cntrd rund th figur f . Zslvsky, wh dirctd it fr ight r nin mnths, nd it ws clld th Unin f Wrkrs f Suth Russi. This cn b rgrdd s th first rgniztin f truly wrking-clss ntur t cm int bing in th Russin mpir.36 Th Unin, which hd 50 t 60 mmbrs in its cntrl rgniztin, ws bl t supprt tw striks, th first in Jnury 1875, t th Bllin-Vndrich fctry nd th scnd in ugust t Gullir-Blnchrds. mnifst ws drwn up nd distributd n th scnd f ths ccsins. Th Unins influnc rpidly incrsd, nt nly in dss, but ls in thr twns lng th Blck S cst. Its prgrm cntind crtin nvl pints. Th tsks it st itslf includd () th prpgnd f th id f th mnciptin f th wrkrs frm th yk f cpitl nd f th privilgd clsss; nd (b) th rgniztin f th wrkrs f th Suth f Russi fr th cming struggl ginst th xisting cnmic nd pliticl rdr.37 t th nd f 1875, n infrmr nbld th uthritis virtully t put n nd t th Unin by rrsting ll its ldrs.

But th rrst f th Chikvists t th bginning f 1874, which smshd th cdrs f tht rgniztin, did nt stp th slw nd imprcptibl sprd f rvlutinry ids mng th St. Ptrsburg wrkrs. n f th mst drmtic xprssins f this, th culmintin f six lng yrs f th dissmintin f ids, ws dmnstrtin in th Squr f Kzn Cthdrl n Dcmbr 6, 1876. This ws th lndmrk in th histry f th Russin rvlutinry mvmnt. Plkhnv, wh plyd cntrl rl in th dmnstrtin, dscribd th vnt yrs ltr. Inspird by dmnstrtin stgd by intllctuls in th spring f 1875 t th funrl f studnt wh ws murdrd by his jilrs, grup f wrkrs prpsd dmnstrtin f thir wn. Thy ssurd Plkhnv tht smthing lik 2,000 f thir numbr wuld ttnd. n th dy, crwd, cmpsd minly f studnts, but with sm wrkrs, gthrd in frnt f th cthdrl. stimts f th numbr f th ppl in th crwd vry frm 150 t 500. ftr dlying th prcdings fr sm tim in th hp tht mr wrkrs wuld turn up, nd thrtnd with th dngr tht th whl ffrt wuld cllps, Plkhnv std up nd md spch tht ndd with th wrds: Lng liv th scil rvlutin. Lng liv Zmly i Vly. rd bnnr with th wrds Lnd nd Librty ws thn unfurld. This smll dmnstrtin ws th first wrkrs dmnstrtin in th histry f Russi.

wv f striks tk plc in Ptrsburg btwn 1877 nd 1879. Thr wr 26 in ll, n unprcdntd lvl f strik ctivity, which ws nt rptd until th 1890s. It ws t this prid tht nw rgniztin f wrkrs rs in Ptrsburg, th Unin f Wrkrs f Nrth Russi. It hd but 200 mmbrs, with grups in ll th wrking-clss districts f th city. Its fundr ws th jinr Stpn Khlturin, th sn f psnt frm th prvinc f Vytk. Hwvr, ftr nly fw mnths f ctiv lif, th Nrthrn Unin ws in its turn smshd by th plic, nd in 1880, it csd t xist.

In 1879, Plkhnv, lding Chrnyi Prdl, turnd his bck n Nrdnik trrrism, nd putting th mphsis n prpgnd, ls rgud n mpiricl grunds fr turning twrd th wrking clss. But th umbilicl crd cnncting his thinking with th Nrdnik vlutin f th psntry s gnts f scilism hd still nt bn cut. In Fbrury 1879, h wrt: gittin in th fctris is incrsing dily: tht is th nws f th dy. This gittin cnstitutd n f ths prblms tht lif itslf brings t th frfrnt, its rightful plc, dspit th priri thrticl dcisins f th rvlutinris. In th pst, nd nt withut rsn, w put ll ur hps nd dirctd ll ur frcs t th villg msss. Th urbn wrkr hld nly scnd plc in th rvlutinris clcultins.

Whrs th psnts in th villg wr undr th influnc f th mr cnsrvtiv nd timrus mmbrs f th psnt fmily th city wrkrs...cnstitut th mst mbil, th mst suscptibl t incittin, th mst sily rvlutinizd strtum f th ppultin.

ur lrg industril cntrs grup tgthr tns nd smtims vn hundrds f thusnds f wrkrs. In th grt mjrity f css ths mn r th sm psnts s ths in th villgs. Th griculturl prblm, th qustin f th slf-dministrtin f th bshchin, lnd nd librty: ll ths r just s cls t th hrt f th wrkrs s f th psnts. In wrd, it is nt qustin f msss cut ff frm th cuntrysid but f prt f th cuntrysid. Thir cus is th sm, thir struggl cn nd must b th sm. nd bsids, th twns cllct th vry flwr f th villg ppultin, yungr ppl, mr ntrprising. Thr thy r kpt fr rmvd frm th influnc f th mr cnsrvtiv nd timid lmnts f th psnt fmily. Thnks t ll this thy will cnstitut prcius lly fr th psnts whn th scil rvlutin brks ut.38

Th cming scilist rvlutin wuld b psnt rvlutin, but th wrkrs wr dstind t b invlubl llis f th psntry, s thy wr still bsiclly psnts thmslvs, nd thy culd ct s intrmdiris btwn th intlligntsi in th twns nd th psntry in th cuntrysid. Nrdny Vly, fr yrs ftr Plkhnvs brk, ls clld fr mr mphsis n prpgnd ctivity mng industril wrkrs. Thus prgrmmtic rticl ntitld Prprtry wrk f th prty in Klndr Nrdni Vli (1883) stts: Th wrking ppultin f th twns, which is f prticulrly grt significnc fr th rvlutin bth by its psitin nd its grt dvlpmnt, must b th bjct f th prtys srius ttntin.39

Hwvr, thr is bsic diffrnc btwn th Nrdniks ttitud, including Plkhnvs in 1879, rgrding prpgnd wrk mng industril wrkrs, nd tht f Mrxists. Th lttr r cnvincd tht th wrkrs r nt ncssry fr th rvlutin, but th rvlutin fr th wrkrs.40 Fr th Nrdniks, th wrkrs r imprtnt fr th rvlutin. Nrdnik cn sk th qustin, Why th wrking clss? whil Mrxist cn nly sk th qustin, Why Mrxism? s th wrking clss is th subjct f histry fr him, nt th bjct.

nc mr, in th ttitud f th Nrdniks t wrk mng th prltrit, w hv th cs f thry bing utgrwn by prctic chng in tctics withut th undrstnding f thrticl cnsquncs ncssry fr cnsistnt chng f curs. Nrdism hd utlivd its tim, nd lmnts f Mrxism mrgd within th idlgicl frmwrk f Nrdism.


Plkhnv, Mrxist pinr

Btwn 1880 nd 1882, Plkhnv wnt ll th wy frm Nrdism t Mrxism. In 1883, th mnciptin f Lbr Grup ws stblishd.

ls in 1883, Plkhnv wrt th first mjr Russin Mrxist wrk, Scilism nd th Pliticl Struggl. This itslf ws by n mns shrt pmphlt, nd it ws fllwd yr r s ltr by th thick bk ur Diffrncs. Th Blshvik histrin Pkrvsky sttd wht ws cmmn knwldg whn h sid tht this wrk cntind prcticlly ll th bsic ids tht frmd th stck-in-trd f Russin Mrxism up t th nd f th cntury.41

Th futur, Plkhnv sid, submitting th cmmun t srching nlysis, did nt blng t th psnts nd thir cmmun. H citd imprssiv dt prving th incrsing inqulity nd individulism mng th cmmunl psntry. n th n hnd, mny psnts hd lst, r wr lsing, th cpcity t till th lnd lltmnts, nd surrndrd thir rights t thr psnts, bcming wg rnrs thmslvs. t th sm tim, thrs, th rich psnts r kulks (kulk in Russin mns fist), wr incrsingly cultivting th lltmnts f thr psnts in dditin t thir wn, purchsd r rntd dditinl lnd, nd mplyd hird lbr.

Plkhnv ls ttckd th idliztin f th cmmuns pst: ur villg cmmunity...in rlity hs bn th min buttrss f Russin bslutism nd is bcming mr nd mr n instrumnt in th hnds f th rurl burgisi fr th xplittin f th mjrity f th grrin ppultin.42 H shttrd th rgumnt f th Nrdnik cnmist, V.V., tht cpitlism culd nt dvlp in Russi bcus f th lck f mrkts. With grt histricl swp, using xmpls frm Clbrts Frnc, Grmny undr th Zllvrin, nd th Unitd Stts, h shwd tht th stt lwys intrvnd t prtct yung, grwing industris ginst th vrwhlming suprmcy f Britin.

Furthr, cntrry t V.V.s rgumnts, hm mrkts did nt prcd th dvlpmnt f cpitlism s prcnditin fr it, but wr crtd by cpitlism itslf. Th burgisi crtd th mrkts, thy did nt find thm rdy md.43 Th ruin f rtisns nd th invsin f gricultur by mny rltinships crts th mrkt. ny cuntrys trnsitin frm nturl t mny cnmy is ncssrily ccmpnid by n nrmus xpnsin f th hm mrkt nd thr cn b n dubt tht in ur cuntry this mrkt will g vr in its ntirty t ur burgisi.44

Plkhnv rgud tht it ws utpin t bliv, s th Nrdniks did, tht cpitlism culd b prvntd frm trnsfrming Russin cnmy nd scity. H cncludd tht scilists shuld turn t th industril wrking clss s th hrbingrs f th futur: Th rurl ppultin f tdy, living in bckwrd scil cnditins, is nt nly lss cpbl f cnscius pliticl inititiv thn th industril wrkrs, it is ls lss rspnsiv t th mvmnt which ur rvlutinry intlligntsi hs bgun.

nd bsids, Plkhnv cntinud, th psntry is nw ging thrugh difficult, criticl prid. Th prvius ncstrl fundtins f its cnmy r crumbling, th ill-ftd villg cmmunity itslf is bing discrditd in its ys, s is dmittd vn by such ncstrl rgns f Nrdism s Ndly; nd th nw frms f lbr nd lif r nly in th prcss f frmtin, nd this crtiv prcss is mr intnsiv in th industril cntrs.45

Plkhnv ws th first Russin t rgu tht th wrking clss ws t ply th chif rl in th impnding Russin rvlutin ginst th tsrist utcrcy. Thus, in sttmnt t th funding cngrss f th Scilist (Scnd) Intrntinl (July 1889), h prclimd: Th rvlutinry mvmnt in Russi cn triumph nly s th rvlutinry mvmnt f th wrkrs. Thr is nt nd cnnt b ny thr wy fr us!46

Still inclind twrd Nrdism

Plkhnv ws still, hwvr, ttrctd by th Nrdniks. Nrdnik ids bund in his writings, spcilly ths f 1883 nd 1884. t tht tim, h did nt cntrst th futur Scil Dmcrts with Nrdny Vly, but mrly dmndd tht th lttr shuld dpt Mrxism. In ur Diffrncs h wrt:

In prsnting this first ttmpt t prgrm fr th Russin Mrxists t th cmrds wrking in Russi, w r fr frm wishing t cmpt with Nrdny Vly; n th cntrry, thr is nthing w dsir mr thn full nd finl grmnt with tht prty. W think tht th Nrdny Vly prty must bcm Mrxist prty if it t ll wishs t rmin fithful t its rvlutinry trditins nd t gt th Russin mvmnt ut f its prsnt stgntin.47

Dspit his criticisms f th rl f th rurl cmmuns, his cncssins t Nrdism wr fr-rching vn n this scr. Thus h wrt:

Whn th hur f th dcisiv victry f th wrkrs prty vr th uppr sctins f scity striks, nc mr tht prty, nd nly tht prty, will tk th inititiv in th scilist rgniztin f ntinl prductin. Th villg cmmunitis still xisting will in fct bgin th trnsitin t highr, cmmunist frm. Cmmunl lnd tnur will bcm nt nly pssibl, but ctul, nd th Nrdist drms f ur psntrys xcptinlist dvlpmnt will cm tru.48

H ls cmprmisd with individul Nrdnik trrrism. nd wht but trrr?... W by n mns dny th imprtnt rl f th trrrist struggl in th prsnt mnciptin mvmnt. It hs grwn nturlly frm th scil nd pliticl cnditins undr which w r plcd, nd it must just s nturlly prmt chng fr th bttr. Th Nrdnik Prty shuld turn t th wrking clss s t th mst rvlutinry f ll clsss in prsnt-dy scity. W r pinting ut wy f mking th struggl brdr, mr vrid, nd thrfr mr succssful. Thr r thr sctins f th ppultin [i.., thr thn th wrkrs] fr whm it wuld b fr mr cnvnint t undrtk th trrrist struggl ginst th gvrnmnt. Prpgnd mng th wrkrs will nt rmv th ncssity fr trrrist struggl, but it will prvid it with pprtunitis which hv s fr nvr xistd.49

Plkhnv ls md llwncs fr th litist ttitud f th Nrdniks twrd th intlligntsi:

ur scilist intlligntsi hs bn bligd t hd th prsnt-dy mnciptin mvmnt, whs dirct tsk must b t st up fr pliticl institutins in ur cuntry, th scilists n thir sid bing undr th bligtin t prvid th wrking clss with th pssibility t tk n ctiv nd fruitful prt in th futur pliticl lif f Russi. Tht is why th scilist intlligntsi hs th bligtin t rgniz th wrkrs nd prpr thm s fr s pssibl fr th struggl ginst th prsnt-dy systm f gvrnmnt s wll s ginst th futur burgis prtis.50

Plkhnv intrducd uthntic Mrxism int Russi nd md it wpn dptd t th nds f th rvlutin. H discvrd th wrking clss s th brr f th futur Russin rvlutin. T mk such strid frwrd rquird brd histricl utlk, which Plkhnv mst crtinly pssssd. H ws n f th mst lrnd, discrning, nd culturd mn f his tim, with pwrful nd riginl mind, criticl nd crtiv tlnts in mny filds, nd brillint litrry tlnt. H studid such divrs subjcts s rgnic chmistry, glgy nd nthrplgy, zlgy nd cmprtiv ntmy, his inquiris rnging int filds s vrid s histry nd sthtics, thngrphy, litrtur, pistmlgy, nd rt. H inititd Mrxist litrry criticism nd pinrd th xtnsin f Mrxist rsrch int numbr f thr filds.

It is difficult t grsp th imprtnc f Plkhnvs cntributin t th Russin rvlutinry mvmnt, unlss n cn prjct nslf in imgintin int th miliu f th rdicl intlligntsi f th rly 1880s, stpd in Nrdism md scrsnct by dcds f struggl nd th bld f mrtyrs. nly thn cn n undrstnd th rl xcitmnt f bing th pinr, th first mn t trnslt Mrxism int Russin trms. Plkhnvs first Mrxin trtis, Scilism nd th Pliticl Struggl, Lnin tstifis, hd significnc fr Russi cmprbl with tht f Th Cmmunist Mnifst fr th Wst. Plkhnvs bk n th Dvlpmnt f th Mnist Cncpt f Histry (1894), ccrding t Lnin, rrd whl gnrtin f Russin Mrxists. Trtsky sttd, Th Mrxist gnrtin f th 1890s std n th fundtins lid dwn by Plkhnv. Nxt t Mrx nd ngls, Vldimir wd th mst t Plkhnv.51

Th strngth f th mnciptin f Lbr Grup

T undrstnd why it tk th yung Vldimir Ulynv s lng t bcm cnvrtd t Plkhnvs ids, n must s tht thy wr indd dismbdid ids with n mvmntn mss striks r dmnstrtins f numrus fllwrs t supprt thm. In fct, fr 10 yrs, 188393, th mnciptin f Lbr Grup xistd nly in xil. It ws prcticlly th whl f th Mrxist mvmnt.

t th utst, th grup cnsistd f just fiv ppl! Plkhnv, xlrd, Dutsch, Vr Zsulich, nd V.I. Igntv. Vry sn it ws rducd t thr. Igntv, wh hd prvidd substntil munt f mny t bck th rgniztin, did in 1895 f tubrculsis, which hd frm th strt prvntd him frm tking vry ctiv prt in th wrk f th grup. Dutsch ws rrstd in mid-1884, whil trying t rgniz th disptch f litrtur int Russi. Plkhnv nd th thr tw fcd dcd f prcticlly cmplt isltin. It is tru tht, thrughut th 1880s, thr xistd circls in vrius Russin citis nggd in ctivitis mng th wrkrs. But thy wr s fbl, th rsults f thir wrk s imprcptibl, th prscutin f th plic s ffctiv, tht thy hrdly mngd t stblish rts nywhr, nd rmind in cmplt isltin frm n nthr. It tk svrl dcds f histricl rsrch t unrth vn th xistnc f such grups, which, wrking undr th mst frightful cnditins, wr ding imprtnt grundwrk in prpring fr th xtnsiv ctivity f th succding dcd.

In 1884, smll grup f intllctuls nd wrkrs, hdd by th Bulgrin studnt Blgv (ltr th fundr f th Bulgrin Cmmunist Prty), wrt t th mnciptin f Lbr Grup: W hv cm t th cnclusin tht thr is much in cmmn btwn ur viws nd ths f th mnciptin f Lbr Grup. Dfrring t thir frign cmrds, wh hv much mr litrry prprtin nd grtr rvlutinry xprinc, th Blgvtsi rqustd th stblishmnt f rgulr rltins, th shipmnt f litrtur, nd discussin f pints f th prgrm, nd thy prmisd t prvid funds. N wndr tht Plkhnv crid with rlif t xlrd, W r nt suffring in vin. Thus bgn prid f yr f cllbrtin tht ndd nly in th wintr f 188586, whn th Blgv grup, lik thrs bfr it, ws ridd ut f xistnc.52

Shrtly ftr th dstructin f th Blgvtsi, nthr grup, clld th Tchiisky circl, rs, but this ls hd vry shrt xistnc, cnfind t 1888. Hrdly hd th plic succdd in liquidting it, whn in 1889, nw rvlutinry grup rs, knwn s th Brusnv grup, ftr its ldr, n nginr f tht nm. mng th mmbrs f this grup wr numbr f prminnt wrkrs, such s Bgdnv, Nrinsky, Shlgunv, nd Fdr fnsiv. It csd t xist ftr th plic rids f 1892.

ll in ll, th 1880s wr yrs f vry smll Mrxist prpgnd circls mng Russin wrkrs. Gnrlly thy wr rmmbrd s tim f drknss. mn f th 80s is disppintd mn, dspndnt nd idl. In litrtur, this md fund xprssin in th plys f ChkhvUncl Vny, Ivnv, nd thr chrctrsll mnifsttins f dspir nd smll dds.

Thr wr vry fw wrkrs striks in th 1880s. In th six yrs 188186, thr wr nly 48 striks,53 nd th Mrxists hrdly influncd ny f thm. n Russin lbr histrin culd writ, quit justifibly, in 1893, tht until tht yr, lbr unrst in Russi hd n cnnctin whtsvr with ny f th Scil Dmcrtic units.54

Th sm, yt diffrnt

In rdr t clrify his wn ids, t invstigt his wn rltinship with Nrdism, th yung Vldimir Ulynv strtd writing plmics ginst th Nrdniks. n cnnt dvlp nw viws thr thn thrugh plmics, h wrt tw dcds ltr.55 Th histry f ids is th histry f th cnflict f ids. Ths rly plmicl writings r nt mpty studis, but dlv dply int th fcts f Russis cnmic nd scil dvlpmnt. bv ll, Lnin wntd t grsp th rlity f th scity in which h livd, nd which h ws dstind t prticipt in rdiclly chnging.

t th nd f th Smr prid, mnuscript by Ulynv ws circulting mng th cmrds. It ws clld Disput btwn Scil Dmcrt nd Ppulist, nd mst prbbly ws summry f Smr disputs prsntd in dilgu frm. Unfrtuntly, th ppr hs bn lst. Thn h wrt rviw f bk-lngth study f th grrin qustin clld Nw cnmic Dvlpmnts in Psnt Lif (n V.Y. Pstnikvs Psnt Frming in Suth Russi). Th rviw, filld with sttistics, nd writtn fr lgl mgzin, ws rjctdprhps bcus f its lngth, prhps bcus f its shrp critiqu f th prviling Nrdnik viwpint. Ulynv rd his mnuscript in th Smr study circl, whr it instntly stblishd his uthrity. n f th tw hndwrittn cpis f th rviw hs cm dwn t us, thnks t ths indftigbl cllctrs f rvlutinry mnuscripts, th tsrist scrt plic. It is vry mtur, unusully pntrting nlysis f th cnmic nd scil scn in th cuntrysid, lthugh Ulynv ws still nly 23 yrs ld. Th bulk f it ws incrprtd int his bk, Th Dvlpmnt f Cpitlism in Russi, writtn hlf dcd ltr.

Ulynvs third pic f writing ws nthr plmic ginst th Nrdniks. It ws clld n th S-clld Mrkt Qustin, nd ws writtn in Ptrsburg in th utumn f 1893. Its min pints wr first utlind by Lnin t mting f Mrxist circl, t which lctur clld Th Mrkt Qustin by nthr yung Mrxist, G.B. Krsin, ws discussd. ccrding t prticipnts in th mting, Lnins ppr md grt imprssin n ll prsnt.56 Th ppr shws vry clr grsp f th scnd vlum f Mrxs Cpitl. It is fin, hrd-hitting criticism f V.V.s thry f th impssibility f xtnsiv dvlpmnt f industry in Russi bcus f lck f mrkts. (Th singl cpy f th mnuscript ws lng cnsidrd lst, but ws in fct fund in 1937.) Ulynvs chif writing in 1894 ws wrk ntitld Wht th Frinds f th Ppl r nd Hw Thy Fight th Scil-Dmcrts ( Rply t rticls in Russky Bgtstv57 ppsing th Mrxists). It circultd in thr stut, crfully writtn ntbks. Th ntbks crtd rmrkbl stir mng th fw Mrxists in Ptrsburg, nd wr sn hctgrphd nd pssd frm hnd t hnd. nly th first nd third prts f th wrk hv survivd, nd thy ccupy 199 pgs in Lnins Cllctd Wrks (furth Russin ditin). n cn imgin th munt f shr lbr invlvd in writing ll this ut, ntly in th mnuscript ntbks, nd thn ll vr gin, lttr by lttr, n th hctgrphd shts.

His nxt min wrk, writtn t th nd f 1894 nd th bginning f 1895, ws yt nthr criticism f th Nrdniks, Th cnmic Cntnt f Nrdism nd th Criticism f It in Mr. Struvs Bk (Th Rflctin f Mrxism in Burgis Litrtur). P. Struv, Criticl Rmrks n th Subjct f Russis cnmic Dvlpmnt, St. Ptrsburg, 1894. This gin is quit lngthy wrkccupying 166 pgs in th Cllctd Wrks. It ws th first f his writings t b printd. But th plic sizd it, nd nly fw cpis wr svd.

Fr th rst f 1895 nd 1896, Ulynv wrt nthing mr ginst th Nrdniks. But in 1897, h wrt furthr mjr ttck n thm, f 118 pgs, ntitld Chrctriztin f cnmic Rmnticism (Sismndi nd ur Ntiv Sismndists). Lstly cm his mjr thrticl wrk, Th Dvlpmnt f Cpitlism in Russi, which fills prcticlly th whl f vlum 3 f th Wrks (535 pgs). This ws Mrxist nlysis f Russis cnmic dvlpmnt, plmiclly writtn ginst th Nrdniks. ll th rsrch fr nd th writing f this bk tk plc whil Ulynv ws plic wrd: first in prisn, thn in Sibri. H md us f 299 wrks in Russin, nd 38 frign studis in Grmn, Frnch, nd nglish (r in Russin trnsltin). Ths h purchsd r brrwd by mil frm distnt librris whil h ws living in prisn r in Sibri. Th bk pprd during th lst yr f his xil in Sibri (1899) undr th uthrship f V. Ilyin.

In mny wys, ths wrks fllw th pth lrdy pnd up by Plkhnv, nd Lnin nvr fild t nt with grtitud his intllctul dbt t Plkhnv. Th lst thing in his mind ws srch fr riginlity. H prbbly rmmbrd th wrds f his grt tchr nd inspirr, Chrnyshvsky:

prccuptin with riginlity dstrys riginlity itslf, nd tru indpndnc is givn nly t ths wh d nt stp t think f th pssibility f nt bing indpndnt. nly th fbl tlk f thir strngth f chrctr. nd nly th mn wh is frid f bing sily discmfitd is frid f xpsing himslf t th influnc f thrs. Currnt prccuptin with riginlity is prccuptin with frm. mn wh hs ny rl cntnt will nt wrry unduly but riginlity. Prccuptin with frm lds t bslss fbrictins nd mptinss.58

Hwvr, in numbr f wys, Lnins writings ginst th Nrdniks r indd riginl, bing rdiclly diffrnt frm ths f Plkhnv. n th n hnd, th yung pupil hd nt th histricl swp f th ld mstr. Whr Plkhnv usd histricl xmpls frm diffrnt cuntris, nthrplgicl rsrch int th ft f primitiv cmmuns, nd s n, nn f this pprd in Lnins writings. Nr is thr th sm wlth f litrry nd culturl llusins nd brillinc f styl. n th thr hnd, Lnins grsp f cnmic nd scil rlity is fr suprir. His us f sttisticl dt in dtild nlysis f th ctul situtin is bttr thn nything Plkhnv wrt. His pntrtin int th vry cmplictd frms f fudl nslvmnt fllwing th nw cpitlist rltins in th cuntrysid is nwhr t b mtchd. Whil still discipl, Ulynv brnchd ut with his wn distinct ids, dviting frm his mstr n tw intrrltd nd, s th futur ws t shw, dcisiv pints: (1) his ttitud t cpitlist dvlpmnt s such, nd (2) his ttitud t th Nrdniks.

Th diffrncs n th first pint ppr mst clrly in Th cnmic Cntnt nd th Criticism f It in Mr. Struvs Bk. In rdr t pprcit thm, w must undrstnd th bckgrund ginst which it pprd. Fr lng tim, th tsrist uthritis wr uncncrnd but Mrxism. During th svntis nd ightis, vlums 1 nd 2 f Mrxs Cpitl wr pssd by th tsrist cnsr.

n cn with crtinty sy, dclrd th cnsr Skurtv in 1872 in th rprt n th first vlum f Cpitl, tht in Russi nly fw will rd th bk nd still fwr undrstnd [it]. Th uthritis f lxndr III ls pssd withut hsittin th scnd vlum, which xistd in Russin ditin in 1885, s it ws in cntnt nd prsnttin srius cnmic study cmprhnsibl nly t th spcilist.59

T ncurg th fight ginst th Nrdniks, in whm th tsr sw th min nmy, lgl Mrxism ws prmittd in th middl nintis. s rly s th 1880s, scrt plic gnt dvisd his suprirs t llw th buildup f Mrxist frcs s cuntr t th mr dngrus Nrdniks. Sinc mst Mrxist writing in sm wy discrditd Nrdism, th fficils suppsd it wuld hlp t kill ff th mjr ppsitinl idlgy. Frm th Mrxists thmslvs th gvrnmnt nticiptd n trubl. Typiclly, Nizhni-Nvgrd plic clnl xprssd th pinin tht thy r nt dngrus t prsnt; nd Ptrsburg prcurtr cnsidrd thm t b s yt nly thrticins.60

In 1894, Ptr Struv submittd fr publictin wrk clrly Mrxist in rinttin, clld Criticl Nts Cncrning th cnmic Dvlpmnt f Russi, nd th cnsr llwd it. Its publictin in Sptmbr 1894 mrkd th bginning f th prid f lgl Mrxism, which cntinud fr th nxt fiv yrs.

lthugh Lnin tk dvntg f th lgl pning fr publishing Mrxist litrtur, s, fr instnc, with his wn bk Th Dvlpmnt f Cpitlism in Russi, frm th bginning h drw clr distinctin btwn himslf nd th lding lgl Mrxist, Struv. Struvs bk ws shrp ttck n Nrdism, but t th sm tim, it ws n plgi fr cpitlism.

Plkhnv, hwvr, hd nthing but pris fr it. Lik Struv, h lrgly vrlkd th cntrdictry, pinful, nd trgic spcts f cpitlist dvlpmnt in Russi. Quit ftn h wrt lmst s n plgist fr cpitlist industriliztin. ginst Nrdnik subjctivism h put frwrd rigid bjctivism. Th scintific scilists, h blivd, wr struggling fr scilism nt bcus it shuld b, but bcus it ws th nxt stg in th mgnificnt nd irrsistibl mrch f histry.61 Th Scil Dmcrt swims with th strm f histry,62 nd th cuss f histricl dvlpmnt hv nthing t d with humn will nd cnsciusnss.63 Grmsci quit rightly ccusd Plkhnv f rlpss int vulgr mtrilism.64 Bcus f his bsic ttitud, Plkhnv culd pprvingly qut Struvs wrds: W must cnclud tht w lck cultur, nd g t th schl f cpitlism.65

lthugh Lnin is n lss criticl f th Nrdniks thn Struv r Plkhnv, his ttitud t thm is rdiclly diffrnt. t th vry bginning f his ssy n th cnmic cntnt f Nrdism, nd th criticism f it in Struvs bk, Lnin mks it clr tht Mrxism hs nthing in cmmn with fith in th ncssity f ch cuntry t pss thrugh th phs f cpitlism r ny thr such mistkn ids.66

Mrxism ds nt bs itslf n nything ls thn th fcts f Russin histry nd rlity; it is ls [lik Nrdism] th idlgy f th lbring clss; nly it givs ttlly diffrnt xplntin f th gnrlly knwn fcts f th grwth nd chivmnts f Russin cpitlism, hs quit diffrnt undrstnding f th tsks tht rlity in this cuntry plcs bfr th idlgists f th dirct prducrs.67

Lnin shrply ttckd Struvs nrrw bjctivism, which is cnfind t prving th invitbility nd ncssity f th prcss nd mks n ffrt t rvl t ch spcific stg f this prcss th frm f clss cntrdictin inhrnt in itn bjctivism tht dscribs th prcss in gnrl, nd nt ch f th ntgnistic clsss whs cnflict mks up th prcss.68

Whn dmnstrting th ncssity fr givn sris f fcts, th bjctivist lwys runs th risk f bcming n plgist fr ths fcts, Lnin writs. ginst this Lnin cuntrpss th mthd f th mtrilist, wh disclss th clss cntrdictins nd in s ding dfins his stndpint.69

Fr Lnin, cpitlism ws prgrssiv cmprd with fudlism, bcus cpitlism crts its wn grvdiggr. Cpitlism wkns millins frm fudl trpr nd rgnizs thm, nd in this lis its prgrssivnss. T shrpn th clss struggl f th prltrit ginst th cpitlistsin this lis th min tsk f Mrxists.

Plkhnv nd xlrd, in thir turn, criticizd Lnins rticl n Struv. H ws in thir ys t shrp twrd th librl burgisi. Thus xlrd in his mmirs dscribs his discussin with Lnin:

Yu shw, I sid, xctly th ppsit tndncy t th n xprssd in th rticl I hd prprd. I...wntd t shw tht in th givn histric mmnt th immdit intrsts f th Russin prltrit cincid with th vitl intrsts f th thr prgrssiv lmnts f scity. Bth fc th sm urgnt prblm...th vrthrw f bslutism.

Ulynv smild nd bsrvd: Yu knw, Plkhnv md xctly th sm rmrks but my rticls. H xprssd his thughts in pictursqu fshin: Yu, h sid, turn yur bhind t th librls, but w ur fc.70

This disgrmnt nticiptd th futur ntgnism btwn Lnin, n th n hnd, nd Plkhnv nd xlrd, n th thr, vr thir ttitud t th librls. Frm crful rding f Plkhnvs Scilism nd th Pliticl Struggl, n cn prdict Plkhnvs vntul rltinship with th librls. H rgus in this pmphlt tht n shuld limit th ims f th nti-tsrist rvlutin t th dmnd fr dmcrtic cnstitutin.

Withut trying t scr nybdy with th yt rmt rd spctr, such pliticl prgrm wuld rus sympthy fr ur rvlutinry prty mng ll ths wh r n systmtic nmis f dmcrcy; it culd b subscribd t by vry mny rprsnttivs f ur librlism s wll s by th scilists. Thn th intrsts f th librls wuld indd frc thm t ct jintly with th scilists ginst th gvrnmnt, bcus thy wuld cs t mt in rvlutinry publictins th ssurnc tht th vrthrw f bslutism wuld b th signl fr scil rvlutin in Russi. t th sm tim, nthr, lss timid nd mr sbr sctin f librl scity wuld n lngr s rvlutinris s unprcticl yuths wh st thmslvs unrlizbl nd fntstic plns. This viw, which is disdvntgus fr rvlutinris, wuld giv plc t th rspct f scity nt nly fr thir hrism but ls fr thir pliticl mturity. This sympthy wuld grdully grw int ctiv supprt, r mr prbbly int n indpndnt scil mvmnt, nd thn th hur f bslutisms fll wuld strik t lst.71

Lnin ls diffrd frm Plkhnv in his ttitud t th Nrdniks. Whil th Lnin f 189395 drw clr lins f dmrctin btwn himslf nd th Nrdniks (much shrpr thn Plkhnv did in 188384), h nvr frgt tht Nrdism hd prgrssiv, dmcrtic, rvlutinry spctunlik Plkhnv, wh, nc h hd brkn cmpltly with Nrdism, csd t find nything prgrssiv in it.

It is clr [Lnin rgus]...tht it wuld b bslutly wrng t rjct th whl f th Nrdnik prgrm indiscrimintly nd in its ntirty. n must clrly distinguish its rctinry nd prgrssiv sids. Nrdism is rctinry insfr s it prpss msurs tht ti th psnt t th sil nd t th ld mds f prductin, such s th inlinbility f lltmnts, tc., insfr s it wnts t rtrd th dvlpmnt f mny cnmy. But thr r ls thr pints, rlting t slf-gvrnmnt, t th ppls (tht is t sy, smll) cnmy by mns f chp crdits, tchnicl imprvmnts, bttr rgultin f mrkting, tc., tc. Such gnrl dmcrtic msurs r prgrssiv. Th Nrdnik, in mttrs f thry, is just s much Jnus, lking with n fc t th pst nd th thr t th futur, s in rl lif th smll prducr is, wh lks with n fc t th pst, wishing t strngthn his smll frm withut knwing r wishing t knw nything but th gnrl cnmic systm nd but th nd t rckn with th clss tht cntrls itnd with th thr fc t th futur, dpting hstil ttitud t th cpitlism tht is ruining him.72

Fr mny yrs, s w shll s, Lnin fught fr n llinc, nt with th librls, th Cdt Prty, s prpsd by Plkhnv, but with th Trudviks, th ptty burgis hirs f Nrdism. In 1912, Lnin pintd ut th cnnctin btwn Blshvism nd th ttmpt t xtrct frm Nrdism its vlubl dmcrtic krnl.

Clrly th Mrxists must crfully xtrct th sund nd vlubl krnl f th sincr, rslut, militnt dmcrcy f th psnt msss frm th husk f Nrdnik utpis. In th ld Mrxist litrtur f th ightis n cn discvr systmtic ffrt t xtrct this vlubl dmcrtic krnl. Sm dy histrins will study this ffrt systmticlly nd trc its cnnctin with wht in th first dcd f th 20th cntury cm t b clld Blshvism.73

f th Mnshviks, Lnin writs, Whil fighting Nrdism s wrng dctrin f scilism, th Mnshviks, in dctrinir fshin, vrlkd th histriclly rl nd prgrssiv histricl cntnt f Nrdism s thry f th mss ptty-burgis struggl f dmcrtic cpitlism ginst librl-lndlrd cpitlism. Hnc thir mnstrus, iditic, rngd id...tht th psnt mvmnt is rctinry, tht Cdt is mr prgrssiv thn Trudvik.74

gin nd gin Lnin rptd: Th Russin Scil Dmcrts hv lwys rcgnizd th ncssity t xtrct nd bsrb th rvlutinry sid f th Nrdnik dctrin nd trnd.75

In Wht Is t B Dn? (1902), Lnin rgud tht th rvlutinry Mrxists must ls nt vrlk th psitiv chivmnts f th Nrdniks in trms f rgniztinl structur :

Th mgnificnt rgniztin tht th rvlutinris hd in th svntis...shuld srv us s mdl...n militnt cntrlizd rgniztin which dclrs dtrmind wr upn tsrism...cn dispns with such n rgniztin. nly grss filur t undrstnd Mrxism (r n undrstnding f it in th spirit f Struvism) culd prmpt th pinin tht th ris f mss, spntnus wrking-clss mvmnt rlivs us f th duty f crting s gd n rgniztin f rvlutinris s th Zmly i Vly hd, r indd, n incmprbly bttr n.76

W shll ncuntr Plkhnv gin, first s Lnins tchr, thn s his ldr cllgu, nd finlly s his implcbl ppnnt. Hwvr, right frm th bginning, th pupil shwd his indpndnc f his tchr, vn whn rpting nd rrguing th cs fr Russin Mrxism ginst Nrdism.


In nticiptin

Thr is littl intrst in hunting fr th influnc f Plkhnv r nyn ls n th yung Ulynv, sinc wht mttrs is nt wht ws brrwd, but wht ws md f th brrwings, nd this dpnds n th xprincs nd th histry f th individul wh brrws, nd n his ctins in th struggl.

Vldimir Ulynvs brk with Nrdism, his riginl psitin with rltin t th librlism f Struv, nd his dilcticl ttitud, i.., his criticl supprt f Nrdism t th xtnt tht th lttr ws rvlutinry dmcrtic mvmnt, r bsic t his whl futur dvlpmnt. Thrughut his pliticl crr, Lnin rgrdd s fundmntl th rltin f rvlutinry scilists t thr scil clsss: th prltrit, th psntry, nd th burgisi.

Lnins sttmnts f this prid lrdy cntin in mbry th cntrl thms f his furthr thrticl dvlpmnt: th rlntlss ppsitin t th librl burgisi, th hgmny f th prltrit vr th psntry, nd th llinc f th prltrit f th industril cuntris with th ntinl librtin mvmnt in th clnis, which is lrgly psnt mvmnt. Bing ptty burgis, th psntry vcillts btwn th prltrit nd th burgisi; it is rvlutinry t th xtnt tht it fights fudlism nd imprilism, nd rctinry t th xtnt tht it clings t ptty privt prprty. Th prltrit must bth lly itslf with th psntry, nd rmin sprt frm it. It must ld it withut mrging with it, withut fllwing its vcilltins. In Lnins ttitud, th Mrxism brught frm th Wst is mrgd with th Russin ntinl trditins f rvlutinry struggl crrid n by th Nrdniks.

Mrx wrt, Th philsphrs hithrt intrprtd th wrld, th tsk is t chng it. Lnin brught t this tsk nt nly his wn prsnl pssin nd ctivism, but ls th hric trditins f th Nrdniks. Whn n f th grt hrs f Nrdism, Zhlybv (wh rgnizd th ssssintin f lxndr II) sttd: Histry mvs t slwly, it nds push, Lnin ws rdy t d just tht. Lnin rprsntd th Russin prltrit, yuthful clss vry cls t th psntry, nt hindrd by shckls f rutin nd cnsrvtism, bld nd dring bcus utsid it thr wr millins f thr pplpsntsls pprssd, strvd, lcking rights, humilitd. Whn th prltrit fights fr dmcrcy it fights nt nly in its wn clss intrsts, but ls s th rprsnttiv f th whl mss f th ppl, bv ll th psntry. Instd f th slitry Nrdnik ging mng th ppl, n hs th prltrit s th ldr f th cuntrysid.

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