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: Nanoscience and nano-technology - cracking prodigal farming

: Nanoscience and nano-technology - cracking prodigal farming
:
: 05:02:39 30 2010
: 14 : 3 : 0 : 0 :    

NNSCNC ND NN-TCHNLGY - CRCKNG PRDGL FRMNG


1. ntrductn

Nn-scnc cupldwthnn-tchnlgyhsmrgdspssbl cst-cuttngmsur t prdglfrmngndnvrnmntlcln-upprtns. t hs ushrd s nw ntrdscplnry fld by cnvrgng vrus scnc dscplns, nd s hghly rlvnt t grculturl nd fd systms. nvrnmntl Prtctn gncy f US dfnd nntchnlgy s th undrstndng nd cntrl f mttr t dmnsns f rughly 1-100 nm, whr unqu physcl prprts mk nvl pplctns pssbl. By ths dfntn ll sl-clys, mny chmcls drvd frm sl rgnc mttr (SM), svrl sl mcrrgnsms fll nt ths ctgry. prt frm ntv sl-mtrls, mny nw nntch prducts r ntrng nt sl systm, sm f whch r usd fr grculturl prductn nd sm thrs fr mny thr purpss.

Nn-scnc (ls nntchnlgy) hs fund pplctns n cntrllng rls f ntrgn, chrctrztn f sl mnrls, studs f wthrng f sl mnrls nd sl dvlpmnt, mcr-mrphlgy f sls, ntur f sl rhzsphr, nutrnt n trnsprt n sl-plnt systm, mssn f dusts nd rsls frm grculturl sl nd thr ntur, zpncs, nd prcsn wtr frmng. n ts strd, nntchnlgy cnvrgs sl mnrlgy wth mgng tchnqus, rtfcl ntllgnc, nd ncmpss b mlculs nd plymrs wth mcrscpc tms nd mlculs, nd mcrscpc prprts (thrmdynmcs) wth mcrscpc prprts (kntcs, wv thry, uncrtnty prncpls, tc.), t nm fw.

Sm f th xmpls nclud clnlptlt nd thr zlt bsd substrts, nd F-, Mn-, nd Cu- substtutd synthtc hydrxyptts tht hv md t pssbl t grw crps n spc sttns nd t ntrctc. Ths hs lmntd csts f rptd lunchng f spc crfts. dsturbng fct s tht th frtlzr us ffcncy s 20-50 prcnt fr ntrgn, nd 10-25 prcnt fr phsphrus (<1% fr rck phspht n lkln clcrus sls). Wth nn-frtlzrs mrgng s ltrntvs t cnvntnl frtlzrs, buld ups f nutrnts n sls nd thrby utrphctn nd drnkng wtr cntmntn my b lmntd. n fct, nn-tchnlgy hs pnd up nw pprtunts t mprv nutrnt us ffcncy nd mnmz csts f nvrnmntl prtctn. t hs hlpd t dvulg t rcnt fndngs tht plnt rts nd mcrrgnsms cn drctly lft nutrnt ns frm sld phs f mnrls (tht ncluds s-clld suscptbl (.., sly wthrbl, s wll s nn-suscptbl mnrls).

Nnscnc nd ts ppld sphr tht s knwn s nntchnlgy hv ptntl t brng th nxt rvlutnry brkthrugh n grculturl-bsd nturl rsurc mngmnt. t hs ushrd s nw ntrdscplnry vntur-fld by cnvrgng scnc nd ngnrng nt grcultur nd fd systms (bdul-Klm, 2007, Ll, 2008). lctrn mcrscps r ndspnsbl tls fr ths nscnt dscpln. lmst ll lctrn mcrscps [Scnnng lctrn Mcrscp (SM), Trnsmssn lctrn Mcrscp (TM), nd tmc Frc Mcrscp (FM)], nd thr ttchmnts [.g., nrgy Dsprsv Spctrscp (DS)] r usd fr sl study. lctrn wvs n SM nd TM nd lsr bm n FM r usd fr clscng mcrgrphs. Snc th wvlngth f lctrn undr nrml crcumstncs s 1 nm, vwng mgs f smll mtrls undr Ms r grssly trmd s nnscnc/nntchnlgy. nvrnmntl Prtctn gncy f US hs dfnd nntchnlgy s th undrstndng nd cntrl f mttr t dmnsns f rughly 1-100 nm, whr unqu physcl prprts mk nvl pplctns pssbl (P, 2007). By ths dfntn ll sl-clys, mny chmcls drvd frm sl rgnc mttr (SM), nd svrl sl mcrrgnsms fll nt ths ctgry. prt frm ntv sl-mtrls, mny nw nntch prducts r ntrng nt sl systm - sm f whch r usd fr grculturl prductn nd sm thrs fr mny thr purpss. Th dvntgs wth M r hgh rslutn mgng, hgh mgnfctn, nd grt dpth f fcus.

n xmpl s nw mrgng dscplns - nnpdlgy. Ths s nw ff-sht f pdlgy; dscpln tht nvlvs study f sl s nturl bdy. Nnpdlgy cnvrgs sl mnrlgy wth mgng tchnqus nd rtfcl ntllgnc. xmpls f mpndng pprtunts r n th rs f stblshng rltnshps btwn hrt vguly-mtchd prprts btwn b mlculs nd plymr, nd mcrscpc tms nd mlculs, nd stblshng rltnshps btwn mcrscpc prprts (thrmdynmcs) nd mcrscpc prprts, whr mng thrs kntcs, wv thry, nd uncrtnty prncpls fnd plc.

Nnscnc hs bn drnng glmur. But t s mprtnt t ccpt tht scnc hs lwys bn d drvn, nd t wuld rmn s n th futur. Thrfr, n shuld hv clr d f wht t study nd why t study. t cn b llustrtd frm th fct tht n bjct f 1 cm x 1 cm my hv mgnfd mg f 3x103 m by 3x103 m n SM tht hs mgnfctn cpcty f 3x105 . n ths mg, thr r 9x1018 pxls f 1 mm2 sz, nd n hs lttl pprtunty t wndr btwn pxls!


2. pplctns n sls studs

Sm f th rs, whr nnscnc nd nntchnlgy hv fund pplctns fr th prductn f fd nd prtctn f nvrnmntl qulty by mngng nturl rsurcs (spclly, sls) n th rth nd xtrtrrstrl nvrnmnts r:

Du t spc cnstrns, th ppr fcuss n fw rs.

3. mprvng ffcncy f ntv nd ppld nutrnts n sls

Fr th ntv nutrnts, th bsc prcsss whrby plnts nd sl-mcrrgnsms drctly nflunc th sl chmcl nvrnmnt s thrugh th gnrtn f wthrng gnts, bcyclng f ns, nd th prductn f bgnc mnrls. Fr th ppld nutrnts, th bsc prcsss rmn th sm, but ppld nutrnts frc chng n sl mcrbl dvrsty, lngsd hst f thr prcsss by chngng sl pH nd cmpstn f sl slutn. W lst sm f ur nttns lng wth fw thr wrks n th fllwng prgrphs:

Cmpstn nd lctrn mcrgrph f K-mnrls n th sls f Punjb: Th ptssum dynmcs s cntrlld xclusvly by th sld phs n sls, nd K vlblty s gvrnd by bth crs nd fn grns f sls. Th phnmnn s mst prmnnt n th sls tht r rch n K-cntnng mnrls (Brr t l., 2008; Mukhpdhyy nd Brr, 2006, Mukhpdhyy nd Dutt, 2001) Th dt n th lmntl cmpstn f lkl-fldspr nd muscvt (Tbl 1) shw rmrkbl smlrts n th mnrl grns n spt f th fct tht th sls wr drwn frm dffrnt sl srs f Punjb. Thr s lttl dffrnc n th mnrlgcl mk-up f th sls n ths srs. Thrfr, t culd b nfrrd tht th dffrncs n th rspns t ppld ptssum n ths sls rs bcus f dffrncs n th wthrng stt f th K-cntnng mnrls, spclly f mcs, rthr thn frm thr lmntl cmpstn r, mnrlgcl mk-up f sls. Scndly, th cntnt f K n muscvt rngd frm 7.99 t 8.88 prcnt (Brr t l., 2008), whch s lwr thn th K cntnt n th stndrd muscvt (10%). Ths mpls substntl lss f K frm th ntrlyrs f muscvt. t culd hppn nly f lyrs pn up, vdncs f whch cn nly b drwn by usng nnscnc tls.

Tbl 1. lmntl cmpstn f lkl-fldspr nd muscvt n sm sl srs f Punjb

Sl srs Chmcl cmpstn
lkl-fldspr Muscvt

Smn

Bhundr

Ghbdn

Bns-wns

K0.93 N0.06 C0.01 l1.01 S2.99 8

K0.94 N0.05 C0.02 l1.03 S2.97 8

K0.94 N0.05 C0.02 l1.01 S2.99 8

K0.94 N0.05 C0.02 l1.01 S2.99 8

K8.88 N0.17 C0.20 l18.99 F3+ 0.28 Mg0.49 S22.03 20 (H)4

K8.78 N0.06 C0.20 l12.93 F3+ 0.42 F2+ 0.28 Mg0.31 S22.17 20 (H)4

K8.82 N0.50 C0.10 l17.50 F3+ 0.43 F2+ 0.28 Mg0.74 S22.13 20 (H)4

K7.99 N0.35 C0.20 l17.40 F3+ 1.45 F2+ 0.08 Mg0.55 S22.89 20 (H)4

Smpl fsurfc sls; Fgursrprsntprcntcmpstn.

dptdfrm: Sdhu (1982) wthsm mdfctn

Frsm slsfPunjb, lctrnmcrgrphsfcrs sndsz mc grns (btt ndmuscvt) llustrt rrgulrbundrylngwthbrknplnsndtchptsthtr prducdthrughdsslutn (Fg. 1). Th mcrcrystlswr plty, ftnprturbdwthfrgnmcrcrystls. Th grnswr strnd, ndthrdgswr mrkdwthclvg pnng (Mukhpdhyytl., 2008; unpublshddt). rlrSdhundGlks (1977) pndthtth mc grnsfth surfc slsfPunjbwr rgulrnstructur, ndffrshrgn. Th ncnsstncsnths bsrvtnswr prhpsbcus furccsst grtrrslutnndhghrmgnfctnthnth frmrwrkrs (Brrtl., 2008).

Sm thrwrks: lctrnmcrscpys hndytlt undrstndflwpthfnutrntsncdsls, whr ltxctys thrtt plntgrwth. dm tl. (1998) nlyzdrtzn fwntrlsdrp (Brssc npus; cv. Rfl) usngSMncmbntnwthDSnbck-scttrdmd, ndfundthtlcncntrtdnth cllwllsfmmtur rtsndtth sl-rtntrfc nth strnglycdcsls, whl K, C, ndPwr ssctdwthth xtrnltssusfth cntrlcylndr.

tmcFrc Mcrscpyhsmrgdsn fth mjrtchnqusfrnvstgtngmnrl-surfc htrgntyndhtrgnussystmsnstu. Th dvntg wthFMvrSMndTMsthttcnmg nrlynysurfc nvcuum, nth r, rn slutn. Lutl. (2003) bsrvdthtsl-clysfnUltslsdsplyddstnctFMsurfc ftursftrdffrntslctv dsslutntrtmnts (cdmmnumxlt nth drk, nddthnt-ctrt-bcrbnt). Th mgsprvd nsghtnt th dsrptnfplntnutrntsnth surfcsfmnrls.

Durngth thrdqurtrsf 20th Cntury, ccssbltyt lctrnmcrscp ndsphstctdnlytclnstrumntsfclttdt s hwwthrngfrntdvncs, ndhw mnrlspcsgv rs t nthrspcs. Mc rcvdlm-lghtdurngth prd. Th rvwsbyRchnbch (1972), Rch (1972), ndSchrdr (1978) llustrt th lctrnmcrgrphs, ndth ntur ndfctrsfpdchmclwthrngfmccusmnrls. twsprvdthtptssumslwlydffussutfth ntrlyrspcsfrmdbyclvg plnsbtwnmc lyrsnt th slslutn, whchrsultsnclvg tth wthrngdgsfmc (HnslndWht, 1960 ndMrl 1954; sctdbyJcksn, 1964). Dnsntl. (1929 - sctdbyJcksn, 1964) shwdthtnwthrngfbtt, thr s gnnl, S, ndH2 cntnt, xdtnfF, ndlssnMgndK.

Nanoscience and nano-technology - cracking prodigal farming

Fg. 1. Scndry lctrn mg f mc grns sprtd frm vry crs snd n th gr clgcl Sub-Rgn f Punjb. () Muscvt. Nt thn plty psdhxgnl ntur f th grn. Th grn bundry s mr rgulr thn btt. (b) btt grn. (c) Btt mg t 15 kV cclrtd currnt. Nt: Brkn bundry, nd xfltd ntur. Grwth f rd shpd psdcrystl s vdnt. (d) clsr lk t hgh cclrtd currnt. Nt: pnng f clvg pln. Dsslutns pts r vdnt.

4. Rgultn f ssntl nd txc lmnts n pdsphr-hydrsphr cntnuum

lmntl blnc: lmntl blnc btwn pdsphr nd hydrsphr s cntrl thm f sf drnkng wtr nd prtctn f lf n wtr bds, nd t mntr cntnntl wthrng. Twnty prcnt f wrlds lnd flls nt ltrts tht r ssntlly fund n hgh prcpttn zn. Ltrztn cuss dcrsng prductvty f lnd, nd ths rgns ftn turn nt brdng grund f hstl pltcl ctvty. Bln t l. (2007) usd surfc prprts t stblsh rltnshp btwn thrtcl mdlng t mcrscpc (tmc structur) nd t mcrscpc (prtcl shp) lngth-scl.


5. n trnsprt n sl-plnt systm, spclly n th rhzsphr

Rhzsphr cncpt f nutrnt vlblty: Rcnt rsrch suggsts tht plnt rts nd mcrrgnsms cn drctly lft nutrnt ns frm sld phs f mnrls, whch nclud s-clld suscptbl (sly wthrbl) s wll s nn-suscptbl mnrls. Thr xsts cls rcprcl rltnshp btwn plnt rt nd sl mcrrgnsms, nd thrfr ll sl-plnt nutrnt trnsprt systms r t b sn frm ths ngl. Jngmns t l. (1997) hv shwn tht fldsprs nd hrnblnds n luvl () hrzns f pdzls cntn bundnt nrrw tubulr prs rngng n dmtr frm 3 t 10 m. n fld sls, ths prs r smtms ccupd by fungl hyph, nd vn Brmn t l. (2000) hv suggstd tht ths hyph thmslvs r drctly rspnsbl fr th sptlly lclzd mnng f th mnrl grns. n cntrlld nvrnmnt xprmnt, vn Hs t l. (2004) usd sm frst sls f U.K. (ftr scrnd thrugh 6-mm sv), nd grw Pxllus nvlutus.

Scnnnglctrnmcrgrphsfth xprmntdmnstrtsthtplntrtsdplypntrtdnt th grnsffldsprs(Fg. 2). Thyhdls shwnthtth mblztnfF ndS nth slclumnwspstvlycrrltdwthhyphllngth, slrsprtnndcncntrtnsfxlt nth slslutn; ndmblztnflwsstrnglycrrltdwthplntwght.

Scnnnglctrnmcrscpyrvldthtmstfunglhyph wr ssctdwthmnrlsurfcswthlttl ccuptnfcrcksndmcrprswthnmnrlgrns. Km t l. (2004) dmnstrtd tht mcrrgnsms cn prmt th smctt-t-llt rctn by dsslvng smctt thrugh rductn f structurl F3+ t rm tmprtur nd 1 MP prssur wthn 14 dys. Trvlnt rn bund n cly mnrls cn b n mprtnt lctrn ccptr supprtng th grwth f bctr n nturl nvrnmnts. t s ssntlly K-cpturng rctn. Glw t l. (2003) dmnstrtd tht Pldrm ( brd hst rng ctmycrrhzl fungl gnus) cn xtrct K+ nd Mg2+ frm btt, mcrcln, nd chlrt.

Ths studsprvd nwnsghtnt nutrntmngmntnsls.

Nanoscience and nano-technology - cracking prodigal farming

Fg. 2. Scnnng lctrn mcrgrph f sl wth plnt nd Pxllus nvlutus (M-): () N (C) fldspr grn wth hyph n th surfc; (b) C (N) fldspr (wth nclusns f N nd K fldsprs) grn wth hyph ntrng crck; (c) mgnfctn f rctngl n (b), rrw pnts t pssbl ntrr hyph; (d) pssbl trc f hyph n mnrl surfc f C (N) fldspr (dptd frm vn Hs t l., 2004).

Sl mcrrgnsms clnz rund th xpsd mnrl surfcs f th clldl sl mnrls (clys), ct thm wth xtrcllulr plymrs, nd physclly dsrupt th grns n thr ttmpt t gn ccss t nutrnts nd nrgy. Thy crt cmplx mcrnvrnmnt t th mnrl-wtr ntrfc, whr mtblclly ctlyzd rdx rctns nd th gnrtn f cds nd cmplxng gnts ld t pH nd cncntrtn grdnts mrkdly dffrnt frm th bulk slutn. Ths ftn prmts stt f thrmdynmc dsqulbrum tht fstrs fstr rts f wthrng (Knhusr, 2007).

Bth btc nd btc ntrctn wth sl mnrls, t grt xtnt, s unxplrd. Trvlnt rn bund n cly mnrls cn b n mprtnt lctrn ccptr supprtng th grwth f bctr n nturl nvrnmnts. Sm cly mnrls sgnfcntly ffct mcrbl lf by mdfyng th physcchmcl chrctrstcs f mcrbl hbtt, nd thrugh drct surfc ntrctn. Th blty f mcrrgnsms t wthr sl mnrls, dgrd rgnc mttr, nd trnsfrm nutrnts nd pllutnts my b substntlly nfluncd by ntrctns wth mnrl cllds. Thrfr, ttntn shuld b pd t th rl f cly mnrls n mdtng txcty f wd spctrum f rgnc nd nrgnc gnts, bth f btc nd btc rgn (Hung nd Bllg, 1998).

Th cntrl prblm psd by th lnk btwn mcrbl dvrsty nd sl functn s t undrstnd th rltns btwn gntc dvrsty nd cmmunty structur nd btwn cmmunty structur nd functn. bttr undrstndng f th rltns btwn mcrbl dvrsty nd sl functns rqurs nt nly th us f mr ccurt ssys fr txnmclly nd functnlly chrctrzng DN nd RN xtrctd frm sl, but ls hgh-rslutn mgng t dtct nctv nd ctv mcrbl clls n th sl mtrx. Th hlstc pprch, bsd n th dvsn f th systms n pls nd th msurmnt f fluxs lnkng cmpstn f mcrbl cmmunts wth quntfctn f nutrnt trnsfrmtns ths pls, s th mst ffcnt (Nnnpr t l., 2003).

6. Zpncs

Zpncs; systm fundd n th cncpt f ntrcnnctd ntur f ll lf-frms nd lf-supprt-frms; rls n rcyclng nd prtn f systm-cmpnnts. t pnd nw vsts n th trdtnl flds f grcultur nd frstry by dmnstrtng tht systm cn b md slf-supprtng, nd cn supply nutrnts t plnts fr lng tm, f blnc s struck btwn lss nd gn f nutrnts. Th systm prvds frmwrk whr mptus nd rspns r lmst qul. Ths mpls tht th frst lw f thrmdynmcs cn b trnsltd t nr mplmnttn lvl n n pn systm. Ths s th nly mns f survvl n th xtrtrrstrl plnts, spc sttns, nd n th ntrctc. t suppls nutrnts ndd fr plnts, srbs gss nd cnvrts b-wst nt usful mtrls. t rcycls prductn-cnsumptn-wst systm wthut cntmntng mmdt nvrnmnt. t cn b usd s nutrnt-cntrllr (fr P nd mcrnutrnts) r rls rt lmtr (fr N).

Sl mnrls, lk hydrxyptt [C10 (P4 )6 (H)2 ] r succssfully usd fr ths systm. Smlrly, xchng f NH4 + nd K+ r rgultd ffctvly thrugh substtutd clnptllt (lln t l., 1995; Mng t l., 1995; Suttr t l., 2002; Suttr t l., 2003). thrs lk zrcnum cmplxs cntnng cyclpntdnyl lgnds llw drct bsrvtn f N-H bnd frmtn frm N2 nd H2 . Subsqunt wrmng f th cmplx clvs th N-N bnd t 450 C, nd cntnud hydrgntn t 850 C rsults n cmplt fxtn t mmn (Pl t l., 2004). Ths bsrvtn my d th dsgn f nw stchmtrc nd ctlytc ntrgn fxtn prcsss. Suttr t l. (2003) usd TM mgs t dcphr F-, Mn-, nd Cu- substtutd synthtc hydrxy ptt. Thr TM-DS mgs shw hw cr ptt chngs whn ns f F, Mn, r Cu substtut H+ .

T cmprhnd nutrnt dynmcs, sl-plnt systm must b trtd hlstclly, nd sub-dvdd nt cmpnnts, ch wth rlstc ndpndnt systm-vrbls cupld wth th prcsss, whch t ths systm vrbls. Structur nd functn f vry cmpnnt nd thr tm hrrchy nd ntrctns wth th nvrnmnt must ls b tkn nt ccunt (Krpnts nd Grnwd, 2003; Mukhpdhyy nd Brr, 2006; Mukhpdhyy nd Dtt, 2003). n such vnturs hgh rslutn mgng nt nly prvds vdnc f th chngs tht ccur n vrus phss, but ls n ndspnsbl tl t undrstnd hw dynmc systms prt.


7. plgu: Lts sht up grnmc prductn - knck dwn nput us jut ut prdgl frmng

Futur grculturl rsrch must b knd t ntur, nd n hrmny t th mutully bnfcl mn-ntur rltnshp. n such ndvrs, th nutrnts (ls wtr) must b msurd n trms f plnts rqurmnts. Ths lmnts nutrnt buld up n sls nd wtr bds, nd vntully ncrss prfts f th frmrs. Nnscnc xctly ms fr t.

nvrnmntl cncrn: ur xpndng blty t synthsz nnprtcls fr us n lctrncs, bmdcl, crmcs, phrmcutcl, csmtc, nrgy, nvrnmntl, ctlytc, mtrl tc. hs lrmd cncrn fr ths prtcls rl n nvrnmntl sfty. Yu cn guss th stutn frm th fct tht n 2004, 2000 tns f ngnrd mtrls wr usd, whch s xpctd t ncrs t 58 000 tns n 2011-2020 (Nwck nd Buchl, 2007). ll ths mtrls vntully lnd n sl. T b usful t th scty, nnscnc ffrts must dhr t nvrnmntl ths.


Rfrncs

bdul-Klm, .P.J., 2007. nnvt t mpwr grcultur nd Cnvrgnc f Tchnlgs. ddrss nd ntrctn wth th Studnts, Fculty Mmbrs nd Stff f th G.B. Pnt Unvrsty f grcultur nd Tchnlgy Pntngr, Uttrkhnd n 11 ugust 2007 (Wbst <www.gbput.c.n>).

dm, P., McHrdy, W.J., dwrds, .C., 1998. SM bsrvtns n th bck-scttrd md f th sl-rt zn f Brssc npus (cv. Rfl) plnts grwn t rng f sl pH vlus. Gdrm 85, 357-370.

lln, .R., Mng, D.W., Hssnr, L.R., Hnnngr, D.L., Glnd, C., 1995. Grwth nd nutrnt uptk f wht n clnptllt-phspht rck substrts. grn. J. 87, 1052-1059.

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