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: The political method of the International Socialist Organisation

: The political method of the International Socialist Organisation
:
: 21:43:31 18 2010
: 19 : 2 : 0 : 0 :    
Th pliticl mthd f th Intrntinl Scilist rgnistin
(ssy)
Rstring th vlidity f th scilist prjct is nt mrly cdmic. Th vnts f 1989-90 hv bn sn s th dth f cmmunism nd scilism nd th finl triumph f Wstrn cpitlism.

Th stnding f Mrxism nd th whl scilist prjct hs nvr bn lwr. It is nt nly th frmr supprtrs f th strn urpn rgims tht hv dispprd (in th cs f th Cmmunist Prty f ustrli), r fdd (in th cs f th Scilist Prty f ustrli); th lft s whl hs suffrd mlis. Nithr th IS nr th SWP (bth frm nti-burucrtic trditins) prsprd, lthugh th IS hd cnstntly rgud tht th Svit rgim hd littl t d with scilism.

This inbility t gin frm th fll f ths rgims rflctd in prt thir smll siz, which nvr pprchd tht f th CP, r vn tht f th smllr SP. Bth th CP nd th SP qutd scilism with th USSR. Th IS nd th SWP wr ls victim t th viws f th ppulr prss, which cnfirmd tht wht th rdrs sw in th USSR ws scilism.

Scndly, dspit th prsnc f mny wrking-clss ppl in th chllng t th burucrcis in 1989-90, th wrking clss mrchd bhind thr bnnrs nd thr ws n mss indpndnt wrking-clss rspns t vnts, nr hs this yt vlvd in th pst-cmmunist fr-mrkt stts. This put bck furthr ny rvivl f th scilist ltrntiv in th ppulr mind.

r th IS r th SWP prtis tht w cn xpct t ply n imprtnt rl in th rvivl f th wrking clss pliticl ctivity nd th winning f th wrkrs t th scilist cus?

Cncrtly, this mns tht th wrking clss must dvlp cnfidnc in such Mrxist prty. It must hv fith tht th prty will tll thm th truth; tht th prty cn crrctly idntify th rl scil frcs invlvd; cn distinguish btwn rhtric nd th rl intrsts bing pursud; cn prciv th lng-trm intrsts f th clss nd th wy t chiv thm. Mst imprtntly, th wrking clss nds prty tht will nt scrific its pliticl indpndnc t n llinc with its ntinl cpitlist clss.

Lstly, in th r f imprilism nd th glbl cnmy, whr th wnrs f cpitl spn cntinnts, mr thn vr such prty must hv n intrntinlist prspctiv: tht is n which viws th struggl btwn th clsss s n intrntinl n.

Thr bsic Mrxist critri

W cn stt thr fundmntl guids t Mrxist prty if it is t crry ut th tsks f winning ldrship f th wrking-clss nd th mr immdit tsk f r-stblishing th vlidity f scilism s rl ltrntiv t cpitlism ftr th fll f th burucrtic stts. Fr Mrxist prty such critri r nt rbitrry, bcus thy r cntrl t Mrxism itslf.

Rmmbring Lnin's dictum: "Withut rvlutinry thry thr cn b n rvlutinry mvmnt"1 , wht shuld distinguish Mrxist prty in its ffrts t undrstnd nd chng th wrld is th mtrilist cncptin f histry2 , which strts with th ntur f th prductiv frcs nd th rltinships tht thy dtrmin btwn th clsss nd th struggl btwn clsss, which ws ntly summrisd by Mrx in his Prfc t Cntributin t th Critiqu f Pliticl cnmy (1857).

Scndly, frm Mrx's dictum tht th librtin f th wrking clss must b chivd by th wrking clss itslf nd frm Th Cmmunist Mnifst f 1848 t Th Civil Wr in Frnc f 1871, writtn ftr th fll f th Pris Cmmun, tht th nds f th clss struggl rquir tht th wrking clss must hv n indpndnt vic3 nd tht n thr clss r scil lyr cn substitut fr it.

Thirdly, nd flwing dirctly frm this, is th Mrxist cncptin f intrntinlism. It ws th intrntinl cntcts md during th curs f th Plish insurrctin f 1863 tht ld dirctly t th crtin f th Intrntinl Wrkrs sscitin (Th First Intrntinl) in 1864, which prclimd th nd fr "intrntinl prltrin slidrity"4 ftur rptdly mphsisd in Mrx's Civil Wr in Frnc .

Whn w turn t th Scnd Intrntinl, stblishd in 1889, it is th qustin f intrntinlism tht ws th surc f cntntin, whn in 1914 th vst mjrity f th prtis vtd fr wr crdits in th intrsts f thir wn cpitlist clss. This ws cntrry t th ntiwr rslutins pssd nly mnths bfr. Th Blshvik Prty f Lnin ws ntbl xcptin. ftr th bndnmnt f intrntinlism in 1914, th prtis f th Scnd Intrntinl, th "lbur prtis", cnfirmd thir ntinlist prspctiv nd thir rcncilitin with thir wn ruling clsss. T Lnin, nd th Third Intrntinl f 1919, th cncpt f intrntinlism ws cntrl.5 Th rvlutinry wv tht brught th Russin Rvlutin f 1917 quickly fdd, s did th tnttiv grip f th Russin wrking clss upn th nwly crtd Svit stt. It ws rplcd in th 1920s by n mrging Svit burucrcy bsd n th CPSU nd th Svit stt. Its ldr ws Stlin. Th trm Stlinism will b usd t dsignt viws tht xprss th intrsts f this scil lyr, th Svit burucrcy.

Th cnsrvtiv ntur f this nw scil lyr ws nwhr bttr dmnstrtd thn in th thry f scilism in n cuntry.6 This ws thry tht cut ff th Svit wrkrs frm th wrld's wrking clsss nd frm its dpndnc n rvlutin in th rst f th wrld.7 It ws n inwrd-lking plicy, which fcilittd th grwth f th burucrcy nd put wrkrs' lylty firstly t ntinl stt tht ws building scilism in n cuntry. Lik ll frms f ntinlism "Svit" ntinlism bund pprssd nd pprssr bhind th sm bnnr. It subrdintd th intrsts f th wrking clsss lclly nd intrntinlly t th intrst f ntinl burucrcy.8 Th criticl pint is tht bfr Stlin, Mrxists ppsd ppulr frnts, hwvr thy wr nmd, which subrdintd th intrsts f th wrking clss t ths f nthr clss r lyr.9

S th prspctiv f th Mrxists, nmly tht f th intrntinl wrking clss, is insprbl frm th nd f th clss t mintin its clss indpndnc. Th bndnmnt f n is th bndnmnt f th thr. Th plitics f scilism in n cuntry wr impsd n th wrld's Cmmunist prtis.10

Thir plitics wr nw dirctly rltd t th nds f ntinl Svit frign plicy s dtrmind by privilgd burucrtic lyr.

Rlting t th frmr USSR

In xmining th plitics f th IS nd th SWP, it is thir rltinship t th frmr USSR tht will b primrily xmind. Bth prtis tk s prt f thir rinttin, rjctin f th USSR s mdl f scilism, nd thir inspirtin frm th ids f Ln Trtsky. In th cs f th SWP it cm frm th intrntinl rgnistin f wrkrs' prtis clld th Furth Intrntinl, stblishd by Trtsky nd thrs in 1938. Bth prtis grd tht Stlin rprsntd dft f th wrkr's rvlutin, nd tht th rsultnt burucrcy ws nithr rvlutinry nr intrntinlist, but cuntr-rvlutinry lyr nxius fr sttus qu rltinship with imprilism (f which "pcful cxistnc" wuld b prim xmpl), which ws put hd f th intrntinl clss struggl.

Thr th similritis ndd. Th IS blivd tht cpitlism hd bn rstrd in th USSR nd tht it tk th frm f "stt cpitlism". similr viw hd first bn put by Jms Burnhm nd Mx Schchtmn in th dbt with Ln Trtsky in th US SWP during 1939-40.

Trtsky, n th thr hnd, rgud tht th Svit burucrcy ws cst but nt nw scil clss. H dscribd th Svit Unin s "dgnrtd wrkrs' stt".11 This diffrnc f dsigntin ws imprtnt. Fr th frbrs f th IS, scil, pliticl, nd cnmic rvlutin ws ndd t vrthrw stt cpitlism in th USSR. In cntrst, Trtsky nvisgd nly pliticl rvlutin, which wuld rmv th burucrcy nd rstr wrking clss cntrl f th stt withut rquiring fundmntl chng t th prprty rltins stblishd by th ctbr rvlutin. Trtsky furthr insistd n th uncnditinl dfnc f th Svit Unin in th vnt f imprilist ttck, whrs Schchtmn nd Burnhm rgud fr wrking-clss nutrlity. This ws stnc th British IS rptd during th Krn Wr n th bsis tht bth sids wr cpitlist. Finlly, nd mst imprtntly fr us, ths diffrncs btwn th IS nd th ustrlin SWP wr criticl in thir nlysis f th vnts in th USSR, in th yrs 1985-91.

It will b rgud tht th IS psitin ws nt Mrxist rspns bsd n th histricl mtrilist mthd f Mrxism, but mrl nd imprssinist psitin12 tht ws indqut s tl f nlysis nd which lckd thm int psitin tht lft thm ill-prprd fr undrstnding th pst-cmmunist scitis f th 1990s.

Nts t Th nd t rstr th scilist prjct

1. V.I. Lnin Wht is t b Dn? Frign Lngugs Prss, Pking, 1973, p 28. S ls p 29, Lnin's lbrtin: "w nly wish t stt tht th rl f vngurd fightr cn b fulfilld nly by prty tht is guidd by th mst dvncd thry."

2. This is Mrx's dscriptin f his thry. Th trms "dilcticl mtrilism" nd "histricl mtrilism" which r mr xplntry, wr cind ltr. S Mrx by Dvid McLlln, Fntn, Lndn 1975, p 38

3. S ls Thss, Rslutins nd Mnifsts f th First Fur Cngrsss f th Cmintrn . Lndn, Plut Prss, 1980 p 396

4. Frnz Mhring, Krl Mrx , lln nd Unwin, Lndn 1936, p 327

5. V.I. Lnin, Wht is t b Dn? p cit, p 29, nd Thss, Rslutins nd Mnifsts , p cit, p 124: "th mnciptin f th wrkrs is nt lcl, nt ntinl, but n intrntinl qustin". S ls Th Cmmunist Mvmnt by Frnnd Cludin, Pnguin, 1970, p 46, nd Funding th Cmmunist Intrntinl: Prcdings nd Dcumnts f th First Cngrss , Pthfindr Prss, Nw Yrk, 1987

6. Th first sttmnt f this nw scil lyr ws in th scnd ditin f J. Stlin, Fundtins f Lninism , 1924. This ws rvisin f th first ditin f th sm yr, which hd rptd th Blshvik rthdxy tht th victry f scilism in th USSR dpndd upn rvlutin in th dvncd cuntris. Frnnd Cludin, p cit, p 71-72. Fr dzns f xmpls f Blshvik rthdxy s Rbrt Blck, Stlinism in Britin , Nw Prk, Lndn, 1970. S ls Lninism undr Lnin by Mrcl Libmn, Jnthn Cp, Lndn, 1975, pp 360-61.

7. Th histricl cntxt f th Svit Unin frm 1923 n ws n f isltin s th pst-wr rvlutinry wv hd pssd. Th tnttiv Svit rpublics f Hungry nd ustri hd bn dftd, nd 1923 cnfirmd th filur f rvlutin in Grmny. Th nd t dfnd th rmining citdl in th Svit Unin culd hrdly b dnid. Th dft f th British 1926 Gnrl Strik nd th Chins rvlutins f th lt 1920s cnfirmd th pssimism but th imminnt xtnsin f th rvlutin.

8. F. Cludin, p cit, p 387 "th thry f scilism in n cuntry cn b sttd s th subrdintin f rvlutinry ctin in ny prt f th wrld t th intrsts f th Svit stt".

9. Th ppulr frnt ws tctic pursud by Cmmunist prtis frm 1934, ftr th victry f fscism in Grmny. It ws diffrnt t th unitd frnt, which ws n llinc f wrking-clss prtis rund limitd wrking clss dmnds. Th ppulr frnt ws n ttmpt t unit with sctins f th burgisi wh ppsd fscism n purly librl pltfrm. Wrking-clss dmnds wr subrdintd t chiving this llinc. Th Cmintrn hd sn th indpndnc f th Cmmunist prtis in rltin t th burgisi nd "thir cmplt frdm f ctin" s "th mst imprtnt histricl chivmnt f th prltrit". S Thss, Rslutins nd Mnifsts p cit, p 396.

10. Cludin p cit, p 117-124; ls Victr Srg, Frm Lnin t Stlin , Mnd, Nw Yrk, 1937, p 52. S Tm 'Lincln Int th Minstrm , Stind Wttl Prss, NSW, 1985 p 36.

11. Rprducd s In Dfnc f Mrxism , Ln Trtsky, Nw Prk, Lndn, 1966. ndrw Milnr rgus tht th "dgnrtd wrkrs' stt" frmultin is bsd n th trnsitry, unstbl ntur f th Svit systm, which h climd prvd t b prptul. Th Rd t St Kild Pir , Wstgt, NSW, Stind Wttl Prss, 1984, p 86.

12. Th trm "imprssinism" rfrs t pliticl mthd tht mks judgmnts n th surfc pprnc f vnts rthr thn xmining th scil nd cnmic fundtins nd histry f th thing studid. nn-IS xmpl, th cnclusin tht Stlin nd Hitlr wr ssntilly th sm bcus bth thir cuntris dptd ttlitrin prctics, ignrs cmpltly th diffrnt clss rltinships nd rcnt histry f bth cuntris.

rigins f th Intrntinl Scilists

Th Intrntinl Scilists, stblishd rund 1972, hv hld th psitin f stt cpitlism n th Svit Unin sinc t lst 1974.1 lthugh th "burucrtic cllctivist" dsigntin ws still usd s lt s 1976,2 th thry dptd by th IS ws tht f Tny Cliff f th British SWP in his bk Stt Cpitlism in Russi .

Th stt cpitlist psitin f th ustrlin IS n th frmr Svit stts, nd th cnnctin with its mntr, th British SWP, hs rmind unchngd sinc tht tim. It is wht immditly idntifis th IS s sprt rgnistin n th fr lft, nd wht histriclly hs sprtd th stt cpitlist prtis frm th Furth Intrntinl3 prtis thrughut th wrld, which cntinud t rgu tht th Svit Unin rmind dgnrtd wrkrs stt.4

Th dbt btwn ths tw frmultins hs cntinud until this dy.5 Th Intrntinl Scilists, s thy bcm knwn frm 1977, hv nvr wvrd frm r chngd thir stt cpitlist viwpint nd thy bliv th vnts in strn urp hv cnfirmd thir nlysis cmpltly. Thy hv lft th thrticl dfnc f th thry t thir British cuntrprts, but it hs rmind th fundmntl thrd in thir nlysis, which is pplid qully t th USSR, Chin, th pst-wr st urpn stts nd Cub, nd by July 1989 Burm, lgri nd Irq.6

Th stt cpitlist thry

Prir t th crisis in th burucrtic rgims, th vlidity f th stt cpitlist thry ws nt tstd by vnts. It hd undnibl prpgnd dvntgs fr th IS. It llwd it t rgu fr scilism withut mbrcing Svit-styl rgims s scilist, withut th xplntry prblms th Furth Intrntinl hd in dsignting rgims s "dgnrtd wrkrs' stts" whn thy wr cnspicuus by thir bsnc f wrkrs' pwr, but which th FI still qulifid s "wrkrs" stts, hwvr dgnrt. n dditinl prpgnd dvntg llwd th IS t prtry bth th Wstrn cpitlist clss, nd th burucrcis, s unitd ginst "scilism frm blw" which, tking its cu frm Mrx's bsrvtin tht th librtin f th wrking clss must b chivd by th wrkrs thmslvs, lks slly t th slf-ctivity f th wrking-clss. This "scilism frm blw" hd t fit int stt cpitlist frmwrk whr strn urp ws cncrnd.

In ssssing th IS, w must thrfr dl with th plicis f stt cpitlism. Is stt cpitlism Mrxist rspns t th dvlpmnts in strn urp? Ds it crrctly idntify th principl cntrdictins in th burucrtic stt? But mr t th pint, wht r th pliticl rsults f this nlysis nd wht ds it tll us but th pliticl mthdlgy f th IS?

Quit prt frm th bvius bsnc f wrking-clss cntrl f industry, grwing inqulitis, nd th xclusin f th wrding clss frm pliticl pwr, th IS hd slid grunds in Mrxism fr dnying th lbl scilist t th Svit-styl stts.7

Rthr thn rpt th dtild dbt btwn th British SWP thrticins nd rnst Mndl f th Furth Intrntinl, w cn ps quris but th stt cpitlist psitin bsd n Mrx's brif summry f histricl mtrilism in his Prfc t th Critiqu f Pliticl cnmy .8

Th IS hs rgud cnsistntly tht th burucrcy bsd n th Svit prty nd th stt cm t pwr with th victry f Stlin ftr Lnin's dth in 1924, nd ginst which Lnin himslf hd bgun t fight in cllbrtin with Trtsky.9 This burucrcy bgn s brkr btwn th rivl clsss in Russi nd th utsid imprilist pwrs nd thn grdully bgn t rul in its wn intrsts with its wn thry, Stlin's thry f scilism in n cuntry. Th burucrcy bcm, by th lt 1920s, nw stt cpitlist ruling clss living ff th surplus vlu prducd by th Svit wrking clss.10

ccrding t th Prfc , it is ncssry if nw clss is t stblish nw prductiv rltinships tht dmint scity, fr thr t b, in Mrx's wrds, "n pch f scil rvlutin". Whr nd whn in Russi did such rvlutin ccur tht put "nw" clss in pwr? W r lft t supps tht it hppnd grdully. It ws strng cpitlist clss indd tht, in its first fiv-yr pln, ttckd privt prprty in lnd, nd cllctivisd gricultur. Wht did ccur ws th sprtin f th Svit stt nd th Cmmunist Prty frm th wrking clss tht hd md th rvlutin in 1917.11 W cn trc th burucrtistin f th Svit rgim t th stt lvl, but nt tht this did nt rquir th dstructin f th cllctiv ntinlistins, mst f which tk plc s rly s 1918 nd 1919.12 It ws thrfr pliticl, but nt scil r cnmic cuntr-rvlutin.

Mr surprisingly th IS sms nvr t hv bn bl t tll us xctly whn this cuntr-rvlutin tk plc. W r lft with rfrncs t th lt 1920s, lthugh mstly it is qutd with th triumph f th Stlinist fctin f th Cmmunist Prty withut spcifying ny prticulr tim. This lck f prcisin, in wht is criticl t thir cs histriclly, lvs pn th suggstin tht th nw stt cpitlist clss chivd pwr, nt in rvlutinry wy, but grdully vr prid f yrs. This pns up th pssibility f th pcful, r grdul, trnsitin frm n clss scity t nthr, which ntirly cntrdicts Mrxist ids nd wuld n dubt b rjctd by th IS.13

t first sight ll th usul lmnts f cpitlism pprd t b missing in th Svit Unin, nmly cpitl,14 cpitlists15 nd cmmditis.16

Instd f th mrkt llcting cpitl n th bsis f prfitbility, th burucrtic pln impss cmmnd cnmy, with its quts nd nrms, in which th wrking clss hs n sy. This is nt scilism, but it is ls nt cpitlism; nr wr th lck f prfits, nd th ftn grssly vr-mnnd fctris nd ntrpriss, tmprry r rcnt, which wr ndmic t burucrtic mismngmnt vr dcds.17

n wuld ls xpct tht if th Svit burucrcy wr cpitlist clss, thn, in lin with vry thr pwrful cpitlist clss, it wuld ct n th intrntinl rn t xtrct prfit frm vrss invstmnts, xpliting Third Wrld lbur, tc. But, n th cntrry, th Svit cnmic links with its "clnis" cnsistd f Svit subsidis fr flgging strn urpn cnmis. Th pliticl cnsqunc f th withdrwl f Svit id t Cub (nd Vitnm nd Mngli), shws clrly in which dirctin th funds wr flwing, s Cub's cnmy hs bn in cut crisis vr sinc.18

Th stt mnply f frign trd, plus th smll prt frign trd hs plyd in th Svit cnmy in th pst, hs mnt tht mrkt frcs hv bn dnid n bvius pint f ntry int th Russin cnmy.

With ll ths fctrs rguing ginst th stt cpitlist psitin, th IS hs nly n cnsistnt xplntin fr why Russi is cpitlist cuntry, which hs pprd in mny issus f th IS ppr, frmrly Th Bttlr , nw Th Scilist . ftr using vry rgubl intrprttin f Frdrick ngls, cncrning Bismrck, Rbrt Bllrd in 1992 rgud: "Wht is imprtnt is wh cntrls prductin nd t wht nds. In Russi vst burucrtic lyr hs cntrlld ths mns sinc it dcisivly ntrnchd itslf in pwr during Stlin's first Fiv Yr Pln. It usd tht cntrl t build up th Svit cnmy t th xpns f th mss f th ppultinth wrkrs nd psntsnd gind wlth nd privilg t itslf. It cmptd n th wrld stg, ttmpting t mtch th US militry cmptitin which indirctly brught th prssur f th wrld mrkt int th utrchic Russin cnmy. This surly is cpitlism."19

This rprsnts nw dfinitin f clss. It cnfuss th pliticl rgim f scity with cnmiclly dminting clss in tht scity. Cpitlism s n cnmic systm hs hd vrity f pliticl rgims, frm prlimntry dmcrcy t fscism, in which th cpitlist clss hld littl r n pliticl pwr in th stt, yt th cuntry rmind cpitlist. Culd it b rgud tht such stt, in which th wrking clss sizd stt pwr nd dstryd th cpitlist clss, might cd stt pwr t burucrcy in cnditins f bckwrdnss nd isltin, but still rtin th cllctivist ntur f th prductiv frcs?

Ultimtly th tst must b fr Mrxists: ds th cnmy "gnrlis cmmdity prductin" r ds it, s did th Svit Unin, rstrin it? This will idntify th clss ntur f th scity nd th cntxt in which th ntur f th stt will b dcidd. It is clr tht th wrking-clss ws nt in cntrl f stt pwr frm Stlin's tim n, but did this mk th USSR cpitlist cuntry?

prt frm suprficil similritis with th Unitd Stts, th cr IS rgumnt lis in th prssur f militry cmptitin. Th stps t Bllrd's cnclusin wr mr clrly st ut in th IS ppr. It rgus tht th surplus prducd by Russin wrkrs ws ndd t prduc rmmnts t mtch th mricns. "This driv t ccumult cpitl in rdr t cmpt with its rivls is nthing lss thn th lgic f cpitlism" rgus th IS. Th whl f Russi is liknd t gint businss, "Russi Inc".20

prt frm n pprnt cnfusin btwn cmptitin nd xchng vlu, th Svit militry nd t cmpt militrily with th US, which tk but 13 pr cnt f GNP in 198821 , clrly hs nt bn rflctd in ny cmptitin btwn Svit nd US wshing mchins nd crs, nr hs it nsurd tht th Svit Unin ddrss th grss vrstffing nd infficincy f its fctris.22

Th IS us f supr-histricl ctgris, which hv n ncssry cnnctin with th rltins f prductin prviling in prticulr cuntry, is mthd tht must b qurid.

Th lgic pprs t b:

 Wrkrs hv n pwr undr cpitlism.

 Wrkrs hv n pwr undr th burucrts.

 Thrfr th burucrts must b cpitlist.

n suspcts tht th dmnds f prpgnd wrk r th driving frc bhind this pic f rgumnt.23

Thr is n nlyticl dynmic in th thry tht prvnts IS prpgnd xtnding th nlgis ndlssly. Th Svit stt cntrl f th cnmy, in rdr t fcus rsurcs n rmmnts, is cmprd withut rsrvtin t Jpn nd Grmny in bth wrld wrs.24

Rbrt Bllrd rvls th inhrnt wknss in his Scilist Rviw rticl whn h cncluds: "rvlutinris must rjct ny id tht th Stlinist rgims wr in ny wy prfrbl t wstrn cpitlism" (my mphsis). This is th substitutin f mrl judgmnt fr n bjctiv clss nlysis. n cn rgu whthr such rgims r prfrbl r nt; th pint is, r thy th sm? judgmnt bsd n mrl prfrncs is pr nlyticl tl.

Whn th IS cnfrnts ppnnts f its viws, it is strngst whn th ppnnt tks thir stnd n th dfnc f th Svit rgims s scilist, nd in th cs f th SWP/DSP, which sw th Grbchv rfrms s scilist rnwl f Svit scity. Th IS critrin f wrkrs' pwr, "scilism frm blw", llws it t mbrrss th SWP/DSP, which ws ffctivly idntifying th scilist cus with Grbchv's ttmptd rfrms. Grbchv's incrsingly uthritrin stnc nd th filur f prstrik md it sy fr th IS t rgu tht this ws nt th rd bck t wrkrs' pwr in th USSR.

Whn cnfrnting viws tht s th USSR s nithr scilist nr cpitlist, but rthr highly unstbl nd cntrdictry frmtin tht ws trnsitinl in its chrctr, cpbl f llwing th rstrtin f cpitlism, but ls vulnrbl t pliticl rvlutin by th wrking clss ginst th burucrcy, th IS is incpbl f brking ut f its mrlistic dichtmy. It is surprising tht th IS s rrly ddrsss th dgnrtd wrkrs stt scnri, givn tht it is th principl rivl viw tht ds nt dfnd th USSR s bing scilist. It is nt until Sptmbr 198925 tht Th Scilist ddrsss th prblm. Th IS rgus tht Trtsky ws "frcd" t rgu tht th wrking clss hd t mk th rvlutin ginst "thir" stt t rstr wrkrs' cntrl. This, ccrding t Mick rmstrng, ws bsd n Trtsky's miscncptin tht wrkrs' pwr ws dtrmind by th ntinlistin f th cnmy. In ny vnt, n vidnc is ffrd. Th IS rturns t th subjct26 in plmic ginst th SWP/DSP nd its supprt fr th Grbchv ldrship s th gnt f dmcrtic scilist rnwl in th USSR.

Hwvr, th IS lumps th SWP/DSP psitin tgthr with th dgnrtd wrkrs' stt thry f Trtsky nd th Furth Intrntinl, which xplicitly rjctd th rl f Grbchv s hving nything t d with th rstrtin f wrking-clss pwr in th USSR.27

Th sympthy f th IS fr th wrking clss is nvr in dubt, but thy rmv th dilcticl nd scintific hrt frm Mrxism, which ss chng s prcding frm cntrdictin, nd rplc it with mrl stnc tht viws th wrld in fixd, stbl ctgris. T th IS, ithr it is full scilism frm blw, th slf-mnciptin f th wrking clss, r it fils t mt th critri fr scilism nywhr. Furthrmr, it is mrlly bd nd thrfr thr is n diffrnc btwn th cpitlist scitis f th Wst nd th llgdly stt cpitlist scitis f th st.

Stt cpitlism nd th fll f th burucrcy

Th fll f th Cmmunist prty rgims in strn urp in 1989-90 ws tst f th vrius thris f th ntur f ths rgims, nd th pliticl mthd bhind ths thris. Dspit th dmnstrtins nd th striks, prticulrly th Svit minrs'28 striks f Jun nd July 1989, nd th lrg numbr f wrkrs n th strt (xcpt in Plnd nd Hungry) during 1989,29 th wrkrs prsntd n chrnt prgrm f wrking-clss ppsitin t th dvcts f th mrkt, nd crtinly nthing lik "rvlutin frm blw" r th pliticl wrking-clss rvlutin nvisgd by Ln Trtsky.

Th IS, fr its prt, ludd ch xprssin f wrking clss rvlt nd th thry nd mthd f stt cpitlism ws sid t hv bn cmpltly cnfirmd.30

T th IS th crisis in th st ws just prt f th spcil crisis f th cpitlist systm. Lik th Wst, th st ws ffctd by th flling rt f prfit, but gin, rguing by nlgy, w r tld tht this ws xprssd by flling grwth rts.31 Stt cpitlism nd th fr mrkt r sn s tw sids f th sm cin.32

Th IS sw n ssntil diffrnc btwn th pr-1989 rgims in strn urp nd th fr-mrkt rgims tht fllwd thm. It ws nly "stp sidwys", ccrding t ln Rintul.33 Th IS my cknwldg tht nithr ptin is rlistin f wrking-clss intrsts, but it limints ny undrstnding tht th wrking clss, lthugh it hs n intrst in dfnding th Cmmunist prtis nd thir rul, ds hv stk in dfnding crtin prtctins, r vn gins, by th wrking clss undr tht systm. Jb scurity, subsidisd fd nd husing nd stbl currncy r fw f th bvius ns.

Th IS rspns ls undrstimtd th significnc f glsnst, which it sw nly s prpgnd djunct t prstrik, but glsnst hd mr imprtnt ffcts. It llwd pliticl criticism f th pliticl mnply f th CPSU nd its privilgs. It sw th mrgnc f indpndnt wrking-clss ctivity (th minrs' striks fr xmpl) nd strngthnd dmnds fr indpndnc by th pprssd ntinlitis. Th rpid dcy f burucrtic rul prcdd t th pint whr th ruling "clss" in Hungry culd, in ctbr 1989, vt t disslv itslf withut witing fr n nslught f ppulr rvlt.34

This pprntly uniqu bhviur by suppsd ruling clss, in bdicting pwr, shwd tht unlik th cpitlist clss in th Wst, th burucrcy rstd nly upn brittl frm f rul thrugh th pliticl mnply f th Cmmunist Prty. nc this wnt, s it did in rly 1990, th dys f th burucrcy wr numbrd. It hd n thr lng-trm ptins. Cmpr this with uphvls in th Wst, which cn bring nrmus chng in th frm f pliticl rul withut th cnmic nd scil dminnc f cpitl bing disturbd.35 This is th pint: tht th dminnc f th burucrcy flwd lmst xclusivly frm its pliticl cntrl, nd nt frm its cnmic nd scil dminnc f scity. Such rsning ws nt cnsidrd by th IS.36

Th indqucy f th stt cpitlist psitin t giv ny undrstnding f th vnts f 1989-91 flws frm its dtrmintin thrughut its histry t s n diffrnc btwn cpitlism nd "stt cpitlism". Th vnts f 1989-90 nd sinc, prticulrly in trms f th living stndrds f th wrking clss, wuld ppr t cntrdict this viw.

vn s lt s pril 1989 th IS ws stting tht th crisis in strn urp ws just prt f th spcil crisis f th cpitlist systm, nd n diffrnt t th criss in Chin nd Chil (sic),37 lthugh it nts sm diffrncs, such s th mss f unprfitbl ntrpriss tht wuld nt hv survivd in th Wst, but which, until th fll f Grbchv, wr fct f Svit lif.38 It lswhr cknwldgd tht prfitbility ws nt fctr in prductin in th USSR.39 Th IS clrly ss such diffrncs, with thir bvius ffct n th wrking clss, s f littl significnc bcus t d s wuld b t rcgnis th incrsingly bvius diffrncs btwn stt cpitlism nd cpitlism. This ds nt imply, s th IS suggsts, prfrnc fr ithr ltrntiv.

In Rintul, in n rticl titld Is Cpitlism Bing Rstrd in th Svit Unin? 40 shws th dilmm th IS is fcing. ccrding t Rintul, th intrductin f th mrkt int th Svit Unin ds nt mn rstrtin f cpitlism bcus cpitlism run by th stt ws intrducd in th lt 1920s. T Rintul, wht mttrs "is nt th prprty frms but th rltins f prductinwht prtin th wrkr hs in th prcss f prductin".

Givn tht th IS is rguing tht th psitin f th wrkr rmins th sm, its stnc f ppsing privtistin f th strn urpn cnmis is nvr xplind. "But scilist ppsitin t privtistin is nt bsd n ppsing cpitlist rstrtin," h cncluds.

"Th cmmnd cnmy f th st nd th mrkt cnmy f th Wst r nt fundmntlly cuntrpisd cnmic systms, but rthr diffrnt spcts f dvlpmnt f th sm systm. Bth prduc rsistnc frm wrkrs nd thrin lis th hp fr th futur."

Th thry mks it difficult t s n wht bsis th wrkrs wuld pps th sckings, th rmvl f subsidis n dily gds, r th clsur f unprfitbl ntrpriss, with rsultnt unmplymnt. Th IS quts Hrvrd study tht nvisgs 38 millin wrkrs unmplyd s rsult f th succssful intrductin f th mrkt.41 "Diffrnt spcts f dvlpmnt f th sm systm diffrnt sids f th sm rttn cin" xplind nthing. "Hp fr th futur" is mrl stnc nd is n substitut fr Mrxist nlysis tht cn supply prgrm t fight fr th pliticl ldrship f th wrking clss tdy in strn urp.42

Dspit th plitics f th IS, th ctul diffrncs btwn th cmmnd cnmis f th st nd fr-mrkt cpitlism invitbly mrg.

Dvid Lckwd, in Chin, Mrx, M r th Mrkt? in xmining th nw fr-mrkt cnmic zns f Chin, rvls cnditins substntilly wrs thn in th rst f Chin. Hr, Lckwd nts, th mny-bsd clss systm hs prducd cnditins "nt ut f plc in Victrin nglnd bsd n th nrrwst clss intrst", sing wrkrs s "th bjct f mrkt frcs nd nt th subjct f histry". In Jun 1990, Lckwd nts th mrgnc in Chin f wlthy nw clss utsid th prty hirrchy, which is prducing tnsins with prty cntrl.43

Th pint ws nt lst n thr IS mmbrs. Din Filds, in lttr, chstiss Lckwd fr dscribing th mrging rich s if thy wr mmbrs f sprt clss t ths wh dmint Chins scity. Dspit nting tht th mrging rich wnt th stbility f lw rthr thn th whim f th burucrcy, Filds ss th nw rich s sctin f th sm wlthy clss tht mks up th prty hirrchy: tht is, cpitlist clss.44 But clrly, n wing f this clss hs pliticl pwr nd th thr ds nt, s th critrin f clss ffrd cntrdicts th IS insistnc tht th ntur f th stt cpitlist clss flws frm its cntrl f th stt. gin, prt frm th cll t th Svit wrking clss t tk mttrs int thir wn hnds, nd ppluding thir rl in thwrting th ugust 1991 ttmptd cup in th USSR45 , th IS ws unbl t mk much sns f th diffrncs btwn th wings f th burucrcy.

Th Scilist sw th cup s n ttmpt by sctin f th burucrcy t shift plitics t th right nd ws crrid ut, in th "intrsts f th ruling clss".46 s Dvid Lckwd pintd ut in lttr,47 this ds nt hlp t distinguish btwn th cup frcs nd th nti-cup frcs. Hving lblld bth th stt burucrts nd th fr mrktrs s diffrnt frms f th sm thing, thir ppsitin t th cup, r th rl f th wrking clss striks ginst th cup, is nt clr. Th IS sys nly tht th wrkrs ppsd "vry shrp shift t th right" bcus it thrtnd th rcnt rights gind.48

Dvid Lckwd, criticising th IS rspns t th cup ttmpt, pints ut tht th prgrms f th Stt mrgncy Cmmitt n n sid, nd Yltsin nd Grbchv n th thr, wr quit diffrnt: "nd tht it wuld b srius mistk t dismiss th cup s simply n xrcis in th ruling clss chnging its utwrd pprncs. Just s in th st urpn rvlutins f 1989-90 thr is mr t it thn tht. Smthing hs chngd in ths scitis. n wing f th ruling clss hs dcisivly dftd th thr. Th victrs intnd t prcd with prgrm f rstructuring which will ncssrily dstry th stt s w hv cm t undrstnd it."49

In Rintul dfnds50 th IS lin by rguing tht th dcisins within th burucrcy rflct th cnmic strngth f th vrius rpublics, nd nt th prgrmmtic diffrncs listd by Lckwd s invlving prsrvtin f th Svit Unin, whthr th intrductin f th mrkt culd b chivd within th Unin r undr th uspics f th prty. Rintul furthr suggsts tht littl hs chngd in th USSR, bcus th USSR rmins cpitlist nd th Svit ruling clss rmins th ruling clss.

This is n ffctiv dnil f th diffrncs btwn th cmmnd cnmy nd Wstrn cpitlism, which lvs th wrking clss ill-prprd fr th nrmus scrifics tht th full-blwn intrductin f th mrkt utsid ny stt cntrl will bring. Ths will invitbly br hvist n th wrking clss in trms f jbs nd living stndrds pint n suspcts is nt lst n Dvid Lckwd, wh in lttr in th nxt issu,51 rgus fr rcgnitin f th diffrncs btwn stt cpitlism nd Wstrn cpitlism. lthugh h dscribs it s "usful t s stt cpitlism s cntinuum strtching frm th lcl lctricity brd t ll th wy thrugh t th Gspln", h diplmticlly suggsts cut-ff pint is ndd t distinguish th tw systms.

f curs, s mmbr f th IS h hs t wrk within th stt cpitlist thrticl frmwrk. His prpsd slutin is tht th mst imprtnt cut-ff pint fr "full-blwn stt cpitlism" is th fct "tht militry cmptitin tks prcdnc vr vrything ls sinc th Svit cnmy ws t wk t cmpt in ny thr wy". Thr is n dubt tht militry xpnditur rprsntd n intlrbl burdn n th Svit cnmy nd hstnd its crisis, but this ls mnt idntifying th criss, nt s th wst nd infficincy f th burucrtic cmmnd systm, but purly xtrnl prssur impsd by imprilism.52

Hving risd th indqucis f th stt cpitlist pprch, Dvid Lckwd, cmmittd s h is t stt cpitlist dgms, is unbl t find wy ut.

n lst spct f th fll f cmmunism, which illustrts th ssntil diffrncs btwn wstrn cpitlism nd th burucrcis, ws th Gulf Wr f 1991. Th cllps f th rgims in th st gv n unprllld frdm t th Unitd Stts nd cntributd t th isltin f th Irqi rgim.

T th wrkrs nd psnts f Irq nd Cub, th histricl diffrncs wr by n mns cdmic, nd yt IS ds nt ddrss th rsns tht nw llwd first Bush nd thn Clintn t imps, t will, Nw Wrld rdr. Such qury is bscurd by th IS insistnc n th ssntil similrity btwn fr-mrkt cpitlism nd th burucrtic stts f th st.


Lcl prctic nd prspctivs

"ny currnt with flwd undrstnding f th wrld nd f scilist strtgy will ultimtly cm t grif" (Th Scilist , N. 227, July 1989, p.9)

It is hrd t trc ccurtly frm th IS prss its invlvmnt in vrius ctivitis. Phil Iltn hs givn dtild summry f IS ctivity in th prid up t 1976. IS mmbrship ws sid t b 70 t th nd f 1977, rising t 100 in 1980; it is sid t b 220 in 1993.53 Brnchs wr stblishd in Sydny nd Brisbn, nd tmprrily lswhr.

ttmpts t build rnk nd fil grups in th unins cntinud thrughut th 1970s thrugh plicy f industrilistin snding studnts int fctris. This plicy cllpsd by 1976, lthugh th rgnistin ws nt withut succss ccrding t Iltn54 , prticulrly in th public sctr.55 vn t this rly stg, IS invlvmnt in studnt plitics ws vidnt in thir prticiptin in th struggl ginst ssssmnt nd plic intrvntin t Mnsh. Typicl ls, ws th IS disruptin f lcturs by th rcist thrists ysnck nd Jnsn t th univrsitis.56

By th rly 1980s this rnk-nd-fil wrk smd t hv substntilly rcdd with th dmissin tht th IS hd n rl influnc in th wrking clss.57 This, it ws sid, ws rltd t th dclining militncy f th wrking clss, prticulrly nc th Lbr Prty tk pwr in 1983.58 Frm 1982 t 1984 th IS bgn t rtrt frm ctivity in th wrking-clss mvmnt, vn frm th multi-clss plitics f th Ppl fr Nuclr Disrmmnt. In 1984 th IS cnfrnc frmlly ccptd th nw psitin f "prpgndism", which it sttd hd bn in plc sinc 1982.

Thy rgud thir nw psitin in Th Scilist nd in pmphlt by full-timr Mick rmstrng, titld Wht is Prpgnd Grup? 59 This rgud tht IS influnc in th utsid wrld nd th wrking clss ws limitd, nd thrfr IS hd t ct primrily s prpgnd grup in rdr t win ppl t scilist ids in prprtin fr th nxt prid f rdiclistin; t sk ut scilists nd cnvinc thm t jin th IS.60

Until "thr is n xtrm rdiclistin mngst msss f wrkrs" th IS rgud, it will b impssibl t tk strids twrds mss rvlutinry prty in ustrli. In th pst, thy sid tht gittinl ctivity ws dsignd t prduc sympthisrs nd influnc in th wrking clss, s prlud t rcruiting wrkrs, but nw th dwnturn hd put n nd t such ntins nd th IS ws mr rlistic.61

Yt th IS hd lwys std fr "rvlutin frm blw", which in th ustrlin cntxt mns rnk-nd-fil ctivism, ld by scilists r th Lninist prty, in which th wrkrs, by ngging in struggl, thrugh thir xprincs gind n undrstnding f th ntur f clss scity, thir plc in it nd th nd fr rvlutinry struggl ginst it. Thus, fr Mrxists, it is nt bstrct ltrntivs r pur prpgnd tht will cclrt this prcss, but th ctul prxis f th clss nggd in struggl.

Givn tht th IS grd tht th nly clss bjctivly cpbl f chllnging th cpitlist systm ws th wrking clss,62 th mv t prpgndism ws mv wy frm this prspctiv. Th dwnturn in th clss struggl, mchniclly qutd with strik dys by IS, ds nt ltr th prspctiv f ctivity in th clss tht must dmint Mrxist prty's strtgy. Th frustrtin f dmrlisd clss nd smll numbrs r undrstndbl, but th turn t prpgnd ln is th dptin f quit diffrnt prspctiv. Th mthd t wrk hr hs its links with th shibblth f stt cpitlism, bcus th mthd is th sm: i imprssinism.

Just s th IS prcds frm th surfc similritis btwn cpitlism nd th strn urpn rgims t dduc thy r th sm, s th IS, whn fcd with dwnturn in wrking-clss industril ctivity, imprssinisticlly bndns th wrking clss, s if such dwnturn in wrkrs' militncy ws, by its ntur, fundmntl. In plc f th wrkrs, thr ws turn t studnts. Th IS cncdd tht grups lik studnts culd nvr substitut fr th slf-ctivity f th wrking clss.63 Studnts nd yuth, it ws sid, wr mr intrstd in th cncpts f scilism thn in spcific industril disputs nd, prhps mst imprtntly fr th IS, thy wr sid t b mr rpidly pliticisd thn wrkrs, nd t prsnt grtr pprtunity fr rcruitmnt.64

Thr is n dubt tht trd unin militncy dclind nc th Prics nd Incms ccrd btwn th Lbr gvrnmnt nd th CTU bgn t tk ffct, nd tht th pprtunitis fr ctivism dclind. lthugh it ws prhps isltd, Mrxist prty wuld hv rmind in th clss rgnistins with th prspctiv f lying th grundwrk fr ris in ctivity s circumstncs chngd; instd, th IS dptd t th dwnturn in militncy (undr th bnnr f "prpgndism"), by turning wy frm th wrking clss t studnts. This mnt rguing scilist ids s "cuntr ginst th prviling pssimism", ccrding t Phil Griffith, wh sms t shr this pssimism.65

This is n undrstndbl md in rctin t th dwnturn, but nt mtrilist nlysis tht is built n th undrstnding tht th wrking clss hs mtril intrsts tht r hstil t cpitl nd tht in th lngr trm th incrsing plristin f wlth in ustrli tht dvlpd in th 1980s culd nly mk tht hstility mr likly. In shrt, th IS, bcus f thir imprssinism, hd lst fith in th ustrlin wrking clss.

Studnts nd slling its ppr bcm th min rs f IS ctivity. In 1990, whn th IS runitd with Scilist ctin t bcm th IS, thy rffirmd this pprch with n mphsis n building th rgnistin.66

This mphsis n building th rgnistin nd incrsing sls f th ppr wr th nly msur f th succss, r thrwis, f th prpgnd grup, nd dmnstrtins bcm th high pint f pliticl ctivitis. Th lttr includd frys n th Mlburn Club nd th Stck xchng, dmnstrtins ginst th IDX67 militry xhibitin, th Bush68 visit, studnt prtst ginst th trtiry tx, nd th mst rcnt usstudy dmnstrtin in 1992, s rsult f which fiv IS mmbrs fcd chrgs. During th Bush visit t ustrli, Th Scilist culd nthus: "This ws clbrtin f rbllin rjctin f vrything rttn but Kting nd Bush's wrld".69

It is ls substitut fr ctivity in th wrking clss. n pg 12 f th sm issu, Mick rmstrng, in n rticl titld Why Mss ctin is Cntrl in Turning ngr int Victry , rgus fr th militncy f th nti-IDX dmnstrtins s ky prt f wy frwrd fr "militnt mss ctin tht cn inspir wrkrs in thir wn pwr t chng th wrld". This is quit diffrnt rdr f things t th slf-mnciptin f th wrking clss, r rvlutin frm blw. Th dmnstrtin tks plc utsid th wrking clss.

Fr th IS th dmnstrtin bcms symblic nctmnt, r rcrtin, f th clss struggl in scity itslf. This is nt t dny ithr th nd fr Mrxists t b invlvd in such prtsts, r in th lgitimcy f dmnstrtins, but th IS ss this rltd t th wrking-clss struggl s "inspirtin". Inspirtin frm utsid th wrking clss must, f ncssity, hv much f mrl stnc but it, prtst ginst symbls f ustrlin cpitlism, lik th sl f rms r th visit f US prsidnt in wr md.

In pril 1992, th nw plitics f th IS wr cnfirmd with n rticl n studnts s ctlyst t rvlutin.70 Just s th IS hd imprssinisticlly rctd t th dwnturn in wrking-clss militncy by bndning gittin fr prpgnd, s it did whn, in th ftrtmth f th lctin f th Knntt Librl gvrnmnt in Victri in ctbr 1992, rlly f 150,000 ppl ws hld in Mlburn n Nvmbr 10, 1992. Th IS rspns t this upsurg ws rvling. n rticl, Th Rturn f Clss by Sndr Bldwrth,71 hild th wrking clss s th nly frc in scity cpbl f inspiring fightbck, nd withut irny mcks "mst n th lft" wh, during th 1980s, hd "turnd thir bcks n th cncrns f wrkrs t tk up n rry f crss-clss ids such s fminism, grn plitics, lifstylism"; whil Phil Griffiths, in th sm issu, smd ttlly surprisd: "Wh culd hv imgind th spd nd scl f th turn-rund in Mlburn".

prty tht hd rmind with its rinttin in th wrking clss wuld hv nt nly imgind it, but bn prt f its dvlpmnt. Tht its influnc wuld hv bn tiny cnnt b dubtd, but its mmbrs wuld hv bn wll-plcd t tk dvntg f ny chnc fr influnc nd grwth. s it is, IS is cndmnd t th rl f chr squd.

Th histry f IS dmnstrts th imprtnc f th mtrilist mthd f Mrx nd ngls. Wht pprs n th surfc smntic diffrnc n th Svit Unin, undrlis diffrnt mthd f pliticl nlysis, which Trtsky lcts s ptty burgis nd which, lik scrtch tht turns t gngrn, infcts vry r f pliticl ctivity.


Rfrncs

1. Th IS bgn in Mlburn s th Mrxist Wrkrs Grup in Dcmbr 1971. Fr dtild histry up t 1978 s Histry f th Scilist Wrkrs ctin Grup by Phil Iltn. IS Publictins Mlburn, 1984, pp.1-6.

2. Th Bttlr , N 26, Sptmbr 29, 1976

3. n intrntinl rgnistin f wrkrs' prtis stblishd by Ln Trtsky in 1938. Its funding dcumnt is th Trnsitinl Prgrm f th Furth Intrntinl .

4. Th pint f th dbt btwn Trtsky nd Jms Burnhm nd Mx Shchtmn ws Trtsky's insistnc n uncnditinl dfnc f th Svit Unin ginst imprilism dspit thr bing simultnus nd fr th wrking clss t pliticlly vrthrw th burucrcy. lthugh Burnhm nd Shchtmn wr thrticlly burucrtic cllctivists rthr thn stt cpitlists, th diffrnc with Trtsky ws th sm.

5. S Th SWP nd strn urp , by Phil Hrs, Scilist utlk (UK), N 27, ctbr 1990, p 26. Fr n IS rply s Lbr Cllg Rviw , N 17, Mlburn, Victrin Lbr Cllg, Jun 1992. S ls Stt Cpitlism vrsus Mrxism by Dv Windsr, Intrntinl , N 2, 1974, p 6.

6. Th Bttlr , July 1989, N 277, p 12.

7. ccrding t Mrx, scilism must includ th blitin f cmmdity prductin nd th grdul dispprnc f mny, th blitin f trd in cnsumr gds t lst within th cmmun, cntrl f frly sscitd prducrs vr th prduct f thir lbur nd vr thir cnditins, nd lstly th cntrl by th ppl vr th md f thir mtril rltins (which implis th bsnc f rprssiv stt pprtus). In thr wrds, scilism rmins n unttind gl nt lst in th frmr Svit Unin. Mrx Critiqu f th Gth Prgrm in Th First Intrntinl nd ftr , Lndn, Hrmndswrth, 1974, pp 345-6. S ls Pwr nd Mny: Mrxist Thry f th Burucrcy , rnst Mndl, Vrs, Lndn, 1992, spcilly chptr 1.

8. Prfc t th Critiqu f Pliticl cnmy , Mrx nd ngls Slctd Wrks , Mscw, 1950 p 327.

9. S in prticulr Msh Lwin, Lnin's Lst Struggl , Lndn, Wildwd Hus, 1969.

10. Th Bttlr , N 7, Jun 21, 1975, Wht but Russi , by Tm 'Lincin p 7. ls N 26, Sptmbr 29, 1976; N 51, My 20, 1978, p 4; N 40, Nvmbr 22, 1977 nd Ns 187, 188, 176, 206.

11. Th Scilist N 235, pril 1990, p 10. Thr cn b n dubt but th rprsnttivity f th Blshviks in ctbr 1917, r th scp f th mss mvmnt bfr, during, nd ftr th ctbr Rvlutin. Fr ywitnss ccunts s Jhn Rd,Tn Dys Tht Shk th Wrld , Pnguin; N.N. Sukhnv, Th Russin Rvlutin, 1917 , Vl II, xfrd, 1955, pp.528 nd pp.579-585. Mrtr-Dn Gschicht dr Russisi Scildnnnmkrt . Brlin, 1926, pp 300-301. Shil Fitzptrick, Th Russin Rvlutin, 1917-32 , p 57 nd p 60. Ditrich Gyr, Th Blshvik Insurrctin in Ptrgrd in Rvlutinry Russi , ditd by R. Pips, Hrvrd, 1968, p.164. rnst Mndl, ctbr 1917: Cup d'tt r Scilist Rvlutin? Ntbks (IIR N 17-18 , 1992, pp 8-12. Mndl cits mny surcs.

12. Mndl, Pwr nd Mny , p cit. chptr 1.

13. ngls nd Mrx rmind rvlutinris t th nd, lthugh Dvid McLlln cits sm quttins frm th lt Mrx tht suggst Mrx did nt rul ut pcful trnsfrmtin in th US nd UK s rsult f univrsl suffrg. S Dvid McLlln, Th Thught f Krl Mrx, Fntn p 228. Sm qustin whthr r nt ngls blivd in his lst yrs in th pssibility f pcful trnsfrmtin flw frm dltins md t his prfc t th 1895 ditin f Mrx's Clss Struggls in Frnc by th Scil Dmcrtic Prty f Grmny, ginst which ngls prtstd. S fr dtils ngls' Lttrs t Kutsky by Ln Trtsky, Nw Yrk, Mrit, July 1969.

14. Yltsin's ppls tdy t th cpitlist wrld fr cpitl fr th Svit cnmy shw th lck f fr r fixd cpitl, which th cnmy nds t functin in th wrld mrkt. Th IS pprs t cnfus th ccumultin f cpitl with th ccumultin f things in th USSR, in prticulr militry quipmnt. S Th Scilist N l76, Jun 8, 1985, p 8, nd N 221, Jnury 1989, p 12.

15. Nt nly is thr lck f cpitl but ls lck f cpitlists in strn urp. Th dumping f mny strn urpn burucrts in 1989-90, which bruptly ndd thir "cpitlist sttus" withut sizing thir prprty, shwd wht ws plin t s: tht th rl lndlrds nd cpitlists hd bn xprpritd dcds rlir. Th bsnc f stck xchng, privt prprty nd cmpny lw r prblms tht fr-mrkt invstrs hv rcntly hd t fc.

16. Mrx, Cpitl, Vl. 1, p 1, dscribs th cpitlist md f prductin s "n immns ccumultin f cmmditis" nd lswhr dfins cpitlism s gnrlisd cmmdity prductin. Yt th bsnc f cmmditis hs bn th mst glring filur f USSR-styl burucrtic scitis. Th pridic criss f vrprductin f cmmditis tht ccur undr cpitlism r nt fund in burucrtic scitis. Tny Cliff himslf cnsidrs tht thr is n cmmdity xchng in th USSR s fr s th mns f prductin is cncrnd, nd gs furthr in sying tht lbur pwr is nt cmmdity in th USSR bcus nly n buyr f lbur pwr xists, nmly th stt. Furthr n, Cliff dmits tht invstmnt is nt dtrmind by th cpitlist lw f th tndntil dclin f th rt f prfit. Tny Cliff, Stt Cpitlism in Russi, Lndn, 1955, p 158, pp 172-3.

17. In fct n imprtnt cnsqunc f th ntry f th fr mrkt int ths cuntris is th numbr f industris tht wuld bcm pn t th mrkt, but which wuld prduc littl r n prfit. In th cs f th Svit Unin this culd mn up t 30 millin Svit wrkrs wuld b sckd nd third f th st Grmn wrk frc wuld b dismissd. ccrding t Hrvrd figurs qutd in Th Scilist , N 256, Sptmbr 1991, p 8, it ws th xclusin f th mrkt tht nbld industry t b built in th first plc nd tht prvntd sinc thn ny mdrnistin prcsss tht wuld limint jbs r cut wrkrs' living stndrds. Plnd hs shwn lrdy tht this is th rsult f th ntry f th fr mrkt int such cnmis, nd th first csultis hv bn jbs nd living stndrds fr mny wrkrs.

18. vrything Within th Rvlutin , Thms C. Dltn, xfrd, Wstviw, 1993, p. 136.

19. Th Lft nd Grbchv , Rbrt Bllrd. Scilist Rviw, N 5, utumn 1992, pp 57-58, IS Publictins, Mlburn.

20. Th Scilist , N 214, July 1988, p 819. S ls Tny Cliff, p 161.

21. Citd in Th Scilist N 221 , Jnury 1989, p 12. S ls Mndl, Pwr nd Mny, p cit.

22. Kn Trbuck hs ls pintd ut tht ny rl wrkrs' stt my nd t prduc cmprbl rms if it is fcd with xtrnl ttck. Kn Trbuck, Stt Cpitlism: Th Clck Withut Spring, Intrntinl, Lndn, 1970. Wuld this nd thn mn tht th lw f vlu f cpitlism wuld b intrducd int th wrkrs' stt which, by virtu f this, wuld bcm stt cpitlist rgim? This wuld mn tht wrkrs' stt wuld nt b pssibl whil n cpitlist stt rmind intct. Givn tht ll stts thrughut histry hv pplid prt f thir scil surplus fr militry dfnc, r in th IS's trms, cmptd with thir rivls, wht is thr in militry cmptitin tht is spcificlly cpitlist? Th cst f rrming cn hstn th dclin f systm, but it ds nt dfin tht scity.

23. Jhn Minns, Th Scilist , N 187, My 1986, p 9. r whn Din Filds rgus: "USSR is cpitlist bcus wrkrs sll thir lbur pwr t ths wh cntrl th mns f prductin. (Th Scilist , N 255, ugust 1991, p 13. S ls N 250, pril 1991, p 8; N 233, Jnury 1990, p 7; N 248, Mrch 1991, p 5; N 247, Dcmbr 15, 1991, p 5). lswhr Grbchv's Prstrik is sid t b similr t Pul Kting's rstructuring (Th Scilist , N 214, July 1988, p 8-9). Th writr nts, hwvr, tht in ustrli unprfitbl businsss wuld b clsd dwn, nd tht in Russi this ds nt hppn. Th vrius nn-Russin ntinl stts in th USSR r qutd with Wstrn clnis dspit th quit diffrnt cnmic rltinship invlvd. (Th Scilist , N 214, July 1988, pp 8-9). gin bsd n similr pprncs, th strng ccumultin undrtkn by th Stlin rgim in th 1930s is qutd with th plicis f th Miji rstrtin in lt 19th cntury Jpn lthugh th dmstic nd intrntinl pliticl situtin f ch ws quit diffrnt. n th Miji rstrtin s Thd Skpl, Stts nd Scil Rvlutins, Lndn, CV Prss, 1979, pp 100-104.

24. Th uthr culd hv ls includd Npln Bnprt nd th Rmn mpir using such critrin. S Th Scilist , N 221, Jnury 1989, p 12.

25. Th Scilist , N 229, Sptmbr 1989, p 5.

26. Th Scilist , N 252, Jun 1991, p 13.

27. Th Significnc f Grbchv, rnst Mndl, FI Publictins, Intrntinl Mrxist Rviw, rprintd Lbr Cllg Rviw, N 8, Mrch 1990, Mlburn.

28. Hdrick Smith, Th Nw Russins, Nw Yrk, Rndm Hus, 1990, pp 433-498.

29. Judy Bltt, Th nd f Cmmunist Rul in strn urp. Gvrnmnt nd ppsitin Vl 26, N 3, 1991 pp.368-390. Bltt dtils th limitd rl plyd by th wrkrs in th fll f th burucrcis.

30. Th Scilist , N 248, Mrch 1, 1991, p 5.

31 Th Scilist , N 233, Jnury 1990, p 6.

32. Th Scilist , N 255, ugust 23, 1991, p 12. S ls 252, July 1991.

33. Th Scilist , N 257, ctbr 1991, p 13.

34. s th IS itslf bsrvd, nly in Rmni did th dicttrships mk ny ttmpt t sv thmslvs. Th Scilist , N 238, July 1990, p 9. S ls Judy Bltt, p cit.

35. n nd nly tk th cs f Frnc, whr cpitl hs ruld undr prsidntil systm, undr mprrs (th Bnprts), fscist gvrnmnt (during Wrld Wr II) nd wid rng f prlimntry rgims frm limitd prprty frnchis nd wid rng f prlimntry rgims (during th rul f Luis Phillipp) t univrsl frnchis. Th lst cntury in Grmny, Spin nd Itly shw similr divrsity in frms f cpitlist rul.

36. Whn th CPSU lst its lding rl in th Svit Unin in Fbrury 1990, th IS sw fit t limit its xplntin f this histric rtrt by rfrnc t dmnstrtin f 200,000 ginst th mnply psitin f th CP. Th Scilist , N 234, Jnury 1990, p 61.

37. Th Scilist , N 227, July 1989.

38. Th Scilist , N 233, Jnury 1990, p 6.

39. Th Scilist , N 255, ugust 23, 1991, p 13.

40. Th Scilist , N 257, ctbr 1991, p 13.

41. Citd in Th Scilist , N 256, Sptmbr 1991, p 8.

42. Th Scilist , N 227, July 1989, p 12.

43. Th Scilist , N 237, Jun 1990, p 4.

44. Th Scilist , N 239, ugust 1990, p 15.

45. Th Scilist , N 256, Sptmbr 1991, p 2.

46. Th Scilist , N 255, ugust 1991, p 2.

47. Th Scilist , N 257, ctbr 1991, p 14.

48. Th Scilist , N 255, ugust 1991, p 3.

49. Lttr t Th Scilist , N 257, ctbr 1991, p 14.

50. Th Scilist , Nvmbr 1991, p 11.

51. Lttr t Th Scilist , N 259, Dcmbr 1991, p 11.

52. n might sk did nt this burdn in prt cntribut t th dclin f th US in its cmptitin with rivl imprilist pwrs? Ds it mn tht stt cpitlism ws prt nd prcl f th US systm? nd wht f indisputbly cpitlist ntins lik Grmny r Jpn in th prid f hug rrmmnt prir t th wrld wrs? Did thy bcm stt cpitlist scitis? N lngr is th intrnl clss structur th critrin f th ntur f th scity but n rbitrry cut-ff pint. rmmnts my b fctr in th dclin f ntin's pwr but thy r n dfinitin f scil systm itslf.

53. ccrding t full-timr Mick rmstrng.

54. Iltn, p cit, p 54.

55. S ls Th Bttlr , Ns. 11-19.

56. Th Bttlr , N 39, ctbr 1, 1977.

57. Th Scilist , N 160, My 12, 1984.

58. Th Scilist , N 191, Jnury 1987, p 10.

59. IS Publictin, 1986, Mlburn.

60. Crisis nd th IS Strtgy , Th Scilist , N 160, My 12, 1984.

61. Building in Prid f Rtrt , Th Scilist , N 191, Jnury 1987, p 10.

62. Wht Clss r Studnts? Th Scilist , N 224, pril 1989, p 4.

63. Th Scilist , N 191, Jnury 1987, p. 10.

64. Rthr thn judging th succss r thrwis f th prty in trms f its influnc n th clss in th ctul curs f th clss struggl, th IS, whil rcgnising tht th studnts wr lss significnt thn th wrkrs in ffring chllng t th plns f th Lbr gvmmnt, sw th studnts' ctin in th f cmpign "s mr imprtnt t us." (Th Scilist , N 216, ugust-Sptmbr, 1988, p 151) bcus it ws sir t intrvn in th fs cmpign nd "w stnd t gt mr ut f it". S ls Th Scilist , N 223, Jnury 1990, Wht is t b Dn , by Phil Griffiths.

65. Th Scilist , N 219, Nvmbr 1988, p 9.

66. Th Scilist , N 233, Jnury 1990. S ls Th Scilist , N 235, pril 1990, p 8.

67. IS tctics t th IDX dmnstrtin wr dbtd with th SWP/DSP, which bjctd t th supr-militncy f th IS, but th SWP prpsls includd th pssibl rrst f ppl lik th IS. Th Scilist , N 263, pril 1992, p 12.

68. Th Scilist rprtd th nti-Bush dmnstrtin rnd th IS nin nw mmbrs, ll btwn 17 nd 22, six f whm wr studnts. Th Scilist , N 260, Jnury 1992, p 3.

69. Th Scilist , N 260, Jnury 1992, p 7.

70. Th Scilist , N 263, pril 1992, p 9. ls Th Scilist N 265, Jun 1992, p 9.

71. Th Scilist , N 271, Dcmbr 1992, p 3.

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